Logeshkumar Marudhamuthu

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Wintel Interview Question? All The Best Guys!!!:-)

Active Directory

What is the Active Directory?

A number of Active Directory descriptions.

What is X.500 and LDAP?

What is the Global Catalog?

How do I configure a server as a Global Catalog?

What is the Schema?

What is a domain tree?

What is a domain forest?

What is a Kerberos trust?

How do I create a new Active Directory Site?

How do I move a server to a different site?

How can a server belong to more than one site?

How can I backup the Active Directory/System State?

How can I restore the Active Directory?

What are the FSMO roles in Windows 2000?

How can I change the RID master FSMO?

How can I change the PDC emulator FSMO?

How can I change the Infrastructure master FSMO?

How can I change the Domain naming master FSMO?

How can I change the Schema master FSMO?

What is Multi-master replication?

How can I move objects within my Forest?

How do I allow modifications to the Schema?

What are Tombstone objects?

How do I switch my 2000 domain to native mode?

How can I force replication between two domain controllers in a site?

How can I change replication schedule between two domain controllers in a site?

Can I rename a site?

What DNS entries are added when a Windows 2000 domain is created?

How can I manually defragment the Active Directory?

How can I audit the Active Directory?

How can I automate a server upgrade to a Domain Controller during installation?

How do I enable circular logging for the Active Directory?

I can’t add a 4.0 BDC to my Windows 2000.

I can’t have spaces in my Windows 2000 NetBIOS domain name, why?

How can I create trusts from the command line in Windows 2000.

How can I modify the number of objects searched in Windows 2000?

I can’t create an OU/child domain with the same name from a single parent, why?

How are objects named in the Active Directory?

How does replication work intra-site in Windows 2000?

How can I change the intra-site replication interval in Windows 2000 for domain information?

How can I set the RPC port used for Intra-site replication?

What tools are available to monitor/change replication?

How do I remove a non-existent domain controller?

How do I remove a non-existent domain from the Active Directory?

How does Inter-site replication work in Windows 2000?

How do I create a new site link?

How do I disable site link transitivity?

How do I create a site link bridge?

How do I specify a bridge head server?

How do I disable the KCC?

How can I change the NetBIOS name of my Windows 2000 domain?

How can I monitor when the Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC) is run?

 

 

Backups

What backup software is available for Windows NT?

How do I add a tape drive?

What types of backup does NTBACKUP.EXE support?

What backup strategies are available?

What options are available when using NTBACKUP.EXE?

Can I run NTBACKUP from the command line?

How do I schedule a backup?

How do I restore a backup?

How do I backup open files?

What permissions do I need to perform a backup?

How do I backup the registry?

How can I erase a tape using NTBackup that reports errors?

How can I remove a dead submitted Backup process?

 

 

Batch Files

What is a batch file?

What commands can be used in a batch file?

How can I perform an action depending on the arrival of a file?

How can I access files on other machines?

How can I send a message from a batch file?

The command I enter asks for input, can I automate the response?

How can I pass parameters to a batch file?

How can I stop my batch files outputing the command to screen as it runs it?

How do I call a batch file from within another batch file?

.bat files have lost their association.

How do I search files for a string from a batch file/command line?

Environment settings set by a batch file are not working.

How can I perform an operation on every machine on the network that is running?

How can you send a programs output to a NULL device?

How can I change colour within a batch file?

How can I call a subroutine in a batch file?

How do I enter freehand comments in my batch file without using ‘rem’?

 

 

Compatibility

Does application x work with NT 4.0?

Does game x work with NT 4.0?

Does NT run 16bit applications?

Will NT 3.51 drivers work with NT 4.0?

How can I fool a program into thinking my NT installation is actually Windows 95?

How can I fool a program into thinking my Windows 2000 installation is actually Windows NT/95/98?

Is BackOffice Server Windows 2000 compatible?

How do I get the RIO 500 player to work on Windows 2000?

 

 

Core

What are the differences between NT Workstation and NT Server?

What does NT stand for?

What is the NT Boot Process?

What is Virtual Memory?

What is the history of NT?

How do I install the SYMBOL files?

What is Windows NT?

 

 

DHCP

What is DHCP?

How do I install the DHCP Server Service?

How do I configure DHCP Server Service?

How do I configure a client to use DHCP?

How can I compress my DHCP database?

How can a DHCP client find its IP address?

How can I move a DHCP database from one server to another?

How do I create a DHCP Relay Agent?

How can I stop the DHCP Relay Agent?

How can I backup the DHCP database?

How can I restore the DHCP database?

How do I reserve a specific address for a particular machine?

What registry settings control the DHCP log in Windows 2000?

How do I authorize a DHCP server in Windows 2000?

How do I create a DHCP scope in Windows 2000?

How do I configure DHCP scope options in Windows 2000?

How can I view DHCP address leases in Windows 2000?

How do I change the DHCP address lease time in Windows 2000?

My Windows 2000 DHCP client has an IP address not in any scopes, how?

 

 

Distributed File System

What is Distributed File System?

Where can I get Dfs?

How do I install Dfs?

How do I create a new folder as part of the Dfs?

How do I uninstall Dfs?

How do I create a Dfs root volume in Windows 2000?

How can I add a replica Dfs root volume in Windows 2000?

How can I add a child node to Dfs in Windows 2000?

How can I add a replica child node to Dfs in Windows 2000?

 

 

DNS

How do I install the DNS Service?

How do I configure a domain on the DNS Server?

How do I add a record to the DNS?

How do I configure a client to use the DNS?

How do I change the IP address of a DNS server?

How can I configure DNS to use a WINS server?

Where in the registry are the entries for the DNS servers located?

I receive error message “No More Endpoints”.

How do I configure DNS for a Windows 2000 domain? – Windows 2000 only

How do I configure Active Directory integrated DNS? – Windows 2000 only

Setting a secondary DNS server as primary results in errors.

How do I turn off Dynamic DNS? – Windows 2000 only

How do I configure a forwarder on DNS 5.0? – Windows 2000 only

I am missing the forwarder and Root Hints tabs in DNS 5.0. – Windows 2000 only

How do I enable DNS round robin resolution?

DNS resolution of a valid domain fails on NT.

How can I force a Windows 2000 domain controller to re-register its DNS entries?

I’m getting DNS zone transfer messages in the event log, is someone hacking me?

How do I perform a DNS zone transfer?

How can I stop DNS Cache pollution?

How can I enable my web site to be accessible as ntfaq.com instead of http://www.ntfaq.com?

How can set the primary DNS suffix in Windows 2000?

How do I create a caching-only DNS server?

 

 

Domains

How do I change Domain Names?

How do I move a Workstation to another Domain?

How many user accounts can I have in one Domain?

How to I change my server from Stand Alone to a PDC/BDC?

What is a PDC, BDC?

How many BDC’s should I have?

How do I configure a Trust Relationship?

How do I terminate a Trust Relationship?

How can I join a domain from the command line?

How do I demote a PDC to a BDC?

How can I configure a BDC to automatically promote itself to a PDC if the PDC fails?

How do I rename a PDC/BDC?

Can I move a BDC to another domain?

Can I change a PDC/BDC into a standalone server?

Can I administer my domain from an NT Workstation?

In what order should I upgrade my PDC and BDC’s from 3.51 to 4.0?

What tuning can I perform on PDC/BDC Synchronization?

I cannot add a BDC over a WAN.

How can I synchronize the domain from the command line?

How can I force a client to validate its logon against a specific domain controller?

How do I promote a server to a domain controller? – Windows 2000 only

How can I generate a list of all computer accounts in a domain?

How can I verify my Windows NT 5.0 domain creation? – Windows 2000 only

How can I configure multiple Logon Servers with LMHOSTS?

Are trust relationships kept when upgrading for a 4.0 domain to a Windows 2000 domain?

How are trust relationships administered in Windows 2000?

I can’t promote a BDC to PDC.

Unable to join a domain because of SMB signing, what can I do?

How can I create a child domain?

How can I create a domain trust through a firewall?

How can I check the browse masters for a domain?

How can I stop a remote master browser?

How can I force a browser election?

How can I modify the domain refresh interval?

How is the list of cached domains stored?

How can I disable trust password changes?

How can I change the password change for computer/trust accounts?

The list of domains in the logon box is not updated, what can I do?

Is it possible to administer a 4.0 domain from a Windows 2000 machine?

 

 

Environment – Command Prompt

How can I configure the command prompt?

How do I enable/disable command extensions?

What commands can be used to configure the command window?

How can I configure a scroll bar on my command window?

How do I cut/paste information in a command box?

How do I enable Tab to complete file names?

How do I create a shortcut from the command prompt?

How can I redirect the output from a command to a file?

How can I get a list of commands I have entered in a command session?

How can I start explorer from the command prompt?

How can I change the title of the CMD window?

What keyboard actions can I take to navigate the command line?

How can I change the default Dir output format?

How do I pause output from a command to one screen at a time?

How can I increase the environment space for a single command session?

How can I stop a process from the command line?

How can I open a command prompt at my current directory in Explorer?

How can I open a command prompt at my current drive in Explorer?

How can I change the editor used to edit batch/command files?

The AT command works differently under NT 4.0 than NT 3.51.

How can I append the date and time to a file?

How can I switch my command window to full screen mode?

International versions of NT have strange behavior in command prompt.

What is the difference between cmd.exe and command.com?

How can I configure the command prompt to output to files in UNICODE/ANSI?

How can I force the output of a program into an environment variable?

 

 

Environment – Desktop

How do I delete/rename the Recycle Bin?

How do I disable Task Manager?

How do I disable Window animation?

How do I reduce/increase the delay for cascading menus?

How do I change the My Computer icon?

How do I hide the “Network Neighborhood” icon?

Why can’t I move any icons?

How can I disable the Right mouse button?

How do I change the colour used to display compressed files/directories?

How can I configure the wallpaper to be displayed other than the center of the screen?

How can I stop the “Click here to begin” message?

How can I get more room on the Task Bar?

How do I add the Control Panel to the Start Menu?

How can I remove a program from the “Open With” when right clicking?

How do I change the Internet Explorer icon?

How do I add an item to the Right Click menu?

Is it possible to move the Task bar?

How can I configure NT to display a thumbnail of bitmaps as the icon instead of the Paint icon?

Can I remove one of the startup folders on the Start Menu?

How can I clear the Run history?

How can I remove the Documents menu?

How do I disable the context menu for the Start button?

How do I change the Network Neighborhood icon?

How do I change the Recycle Bin icons?

How do I change the Briefcase icon?

How can I get rid of the arrow over the shortcuts?

I have deleted the Recycle bin how can I recreate it?

I have deleted Internet Explorer from the desktop how can I recreate it?

How can I add a shortcut to launch a screensaver on the desktop?

How do I delete/rename the Inbox icon?

I have deleted the Inbox icon, how can I recreate it?

How can I stop and start Explorer (the shell)?

How do I enable the mouse snap-to?

How do I enable X Windows-Style auto-raise?

How do I remove a template from the New menu?

I don’t have the new item on my desktop context menu.

How do I remove the Favorites branch of the Start menu?

How do I disable the logoff buttons?

How do I stop the default Shortcut to text added to new shortcuts?

How do I modify the shortcut arrow?

How can I set the default view for all drives/folders?

How can I stop my environment changes being saved when I logoff?

How can I enable Hi-Colour icons?

How can I configure the wallpaper to stretch across the screen?

How can I configure dialog box content to be shown while dragging windows?

How can I configure Font smoothing?

How can I modify the grace timeout for password protected screensavers?

How can I minimize all open windows?

How can I configure logoff to show on the Start menu in Windows 2000?

How can I configure Control Panel to cascade on the Start menu in Windows 2000?

How can I remove the Scheduled Tasks icon from My Computer?

How can I configure the Administrative Tools to show on the Start menu?

How can I recreate ‘My Briefcase’ if I deleted it?

How do I use My Briefcase?

How can I avoid having to click ‘Show Files’ in 2000’s Explorer all the time?

How do I add the Dial Up Networking to the Start Menu?

How do I add the Printers Settings applet to the Start Menu?

How can I remove an item from the New context menu?

How can I check for dead shortcuts on my system?

How can I add a Encrypt/Decrypt option to the context menu?

How can I add a Copy to Folder option to the context menu?

How can I add a Move to Folder option to the context menu?

 

 

Exchange/Windows Messaging

The Outlook/Exchange client takes a long time to start.

How can I stop Outlook dialing my Internet Account on Startup?

How do I install Exchange?

How do I enable the Exchange Active Server Pages?

How do I use the Exchange Optimizer utility?

How can I convert mail system X to Exchange?

How can I create shortcut on the desktop with the “to” field completed?

NT Server hangs at shutdown if User Manager is running.

How can I send a mail message from the command line?

What files does Exchange use?

How can I change the location of my mail file in Outlook 98?

How can I reduce the size of my mail file?

I have a bad message in my POP3 mail box using TELNET

How can I send mail to a SMTP server using Telnet?

Is there a list of known Exchange Directory and Information store problems?

How do I install Exchange Server 5.5?

How do I run the Exchange Optimizer?

What Service Packs are available for Exchange?

How can I retrieve mail from a POP3 mailbox and forward it to Exchange server?

How do I upgrade from Exchange 5.0 to 5.5?

How do I uninstall Exchange?

How do I install a duplicate Exchange server?

How do I connect Exchange sites?

Exchange Security Knowledge Base list.

How do I configure Exchange Directory Replication?

How do I monitor an Exchange link?

How do I delete a server from an Exchange site?

How do I setup an Exchange forward?

How do I configure a X.400 Exchange connector?

How do I allow a user to administer Exchange?

How do I grant permission for people to create top level public folders?

How do I create public folders?

How do I connect my Exchange server to a SMTP server?

How do I connect my Exchange server to a NEWS feed?

What web sites have good Exchange information?

How do I download to Exchange from multiple POP3 mail boxes?

How do I install the Key Management Server?

How do I manage the Certificate Authority of Key Management Server?

How do I enable advanced security for a user?

How do I automatically create an Exchange mailbox for all members of the domain?

How do I avoid having to enter the Key Management password?

I archived some .pst files to a CD-ROM but unable to load the files.

How can I limit Exchange mailbox size?

How can I limit message sizes in Exchange?

How can I undelete mail in Outlook?

What workflow software is available for Exchange server?

How do you add an additional Global Address Book or another view to the global address book?

How do I delete a bad Schedule + message?

How do I link Exchange 5.5 and the Windows 2000 Active Directory?

What is the upgrade to large table option in Outlook?

How can I disable the Journal in Outlook?

Internet Mail Server hangs on start-up, ID 7022, why?

How can I search my Exchange stores for virus infected messages?

How do I create an Outlook vCard?

How can I configure Outlook to be the default mail client?

How do I install a digital signature in Outlook?

How do I create a distribution list in Outlook 2000?

How can I add a disclaimer to each outgoing mail at server level?

How I can I block mail with certain attachments or certain words at server level?

How can I automatically compress all outbound mail to save on bandwidth?

Unix users can’t talk to an Exchange box News server without requiring authentication domain\user, why?

Does the Exchange News server support mode stream?

How can I fax from Exchange server?

How can I limit the number of recipients for a message?

My outlook .pst file is corrupt what can I do?

Where can I get Exchange Server 2000?

How can I encrypt email at server level?

How can I stop the Exchange SMTP service performing reverse lookups?

How can I move an Outlook Personal Address Book on a Mac to a PC?

 

 

File Systems

How can a FAT partition be converted to an NTFS partition?

How can a NTFS partition be converted to a FAT partition?

How do I run HPFS under NT 4.0?

How do I compress a directory?

How do I uncompress a directory?

Is there an NTFS defragmentation tool available?

Can I undelete a file in NT?

Does NT support FAT32?

Can you read a NTFS partition from DOS?

How do you delete a NTFS partition?

Is it possible to repartition a disk without losing data?

What is the biggest disk NT can use?

Can I disable 8.3 name creation on a NTFS?

How can I stop NT from generating LFN’s (Long File Names) on a FAT partition?

I can’t create any files on the root of a FAT partition.

How do LFN’s work?

How do I change access permissions on a directory?

How can I change access permissions from the command line?

I have a CHKDSK scheduled to start next reboot, but I want to stop it.

My NTFS drive is corrupt, how do I recover?

How can I delete a file without it going to the recycle bin?

How can I change the serial number of a disk?

How can I backup the Master Boot Record?

How do I restore the Master Boot Record?

What CD-ROM file systems can NT read?

How do I disable 8.3 name creation on VFAT?

How do I create a Volume Set?

How do I extend a Volume Set?

How do I delete a Volume Set?

What is the maximum number of characters a filename can be?

How can I stop chkdsk at boot time from checking volume x?

How can I compress files/directories from the command line?

What protections can be set on files/directories on a NTFS partition?

How can I take ownership of files?

How can I view the permissions a user has on a file from the command line?

How can I tell the total amount of space used by a folder (including sub folders)?

There are files beginning with $ at the root of my NTFS drive, can I delete them?

What file system do Iomega ZIP disks use?

What cluster size does a FAT/NTFS partition use?

How much free space do I need to convert a FAT partition to NTFS?

NT becomes unresponsive during an NTFS disk operation such as a dir.

I have missing space on my NTFS partitions (Alternate Data Streams).

How can I change the Volume ID of a disk?

How do I read NTFS 5.0 partitions from Windows NT 4.0?

How do share and file system protections interact?

How can I backup/restore my Master Boot Record?

How do I convert an NTFS partition to NTFS 5.0? – Windows 2000 only

I cannot compress files on an NTFS partition.

How can I modify the CHKDSK timer?

How can I view the current owner of a file?

How can I view/defrag pagefile fragmentation?

I get a disk maintenance message during setup.

Where is Disk Administrator in Windows 2000? – Windows 2000 only

How do I convert a basic disk to dynamic? – Windows 2000 only

How do I delete a volume in Windows 2000? – Windows 2000 only

How do I import a foreign volume in Windows 2000? – Windows 2000 only

How can I wipe the Master Boot Record?

How can I cancel a scheduled NTFS conversion?

What is the Encrypted File System (EFS)?

How do I encrypt/decrypt a file?

What do I encrypt/decrypt a file from the command line?

How can a user request an EFS recovery certificate?

How can I add a user as an EFS recovery agent for a domain?

How do I delete an orphaned share?

How can I check who last opened a file?

I’ve increased the size of a hardware RAID volume but NT does not see the size increase, what can I do?

I’m unable to use the Encrypted File System under Windows 2000 as I’m a member of a 4.0 domain.

How do I enable per volume/user disk space quotas on NTFS 5.0?

How do I view current quota entries?

How do I add a new user quota entry?

What are reparse points?

What are directory junctions?

What are Mount points?

What do I add a Mount point?

What do I remove a Mount point?

What do I create a Mount point from the command line?

What is Native Structured Storage?

How can I backup my local Encrypted File System recovery key?

How can I restore my local Encrypted File System recovery key?

How can I perform a CHKDSK  on an NTFS 5.0 partition from NT 4.0?

How do I create a unix-like hardlink on NTFS?

Is there an alternative to the linkd utility supplied with the Windows 2000 Resource Kit?

The ” Data in Remote Storage” indicator is not correct, what can I do?

What is the Remote Storage System (RSS)?

How do I install the Remote Storage subsystem?

How do I configure the Remote Storage subsystem?

How do I force a Remote Storage scan?

How can I tell which files have been moved to remote storage?

How can I disable remote storage for a volume?

 

 

Group Policy

What is Group Policy?

How can I force GPO updates to take effect?

How can I enable the old NTCONFIG.POL to be used by Windows 2000 clients?

How can I add additional templates to a Group Policy Object?

How can I apply a group policy to a security group?

Password policies assigned to an OU/site GPO do not work.

How can I convert a NT 4.0 .pol file to a Windows 2000 group policy object?

 

 

Hardware

How do I change the letter associated with a drive?

How can I get NT to recognize my second harddisk?

How do I install a HP scanner?

How do I install dual screens?

How much memory can NT support?

How much memory do I need for NT?

I cannot see my CD-ROM drive from NT?

What are the IRQ’s used for?

How Many CPU’s does NT support?

Is there a list of hardware NT supports?

Can I test my hardware to see if it is compatible with NT?

Can I test my SCSI devices?

How do I disable mouse detection on a COM port (for UPS usage)?

Where can I get a driver for x?

My U.S. Robotics 56K modem only connects at 19200.

Can I use the IDE interface on my sound card?

Does NT support Plug and Play?

How do I install UPS?

How do I give my tape drive a letter so it is visible from explorer?

How can I force NT to use a mouse on a given port?

How can I view which resources devices are using under NT?

When I disconnect one of my devices I get errors when I boot NT, how can I stop them?

How can I tell if I am using the Compaq Hardware Abstraction Layer?

How do stop a dual monitor Matrox Millenium system splitting dialog boxes?

How can I suppress the error message generated if my ZIP drive is not connected?

Does Windows NT 4.0 support USB?

Why can’t I hot swap my PCMCIA card with Windows NT 4.0?

How do I install a ZIP drive under NT?

How do I enable Bus Mastering in Windows NT?

I said no to a PNPISA device now I want to install it.

How do I perform unattended installations on machines with AGP graphics cards?

Does NT support DVD drives?

How can I check the amount of physical RAM in my machine?

How can I safely disable a device?

How can I make NT see more than 8 units on SCSI?

Does Windows support the Promise Ultra ATA/66?

How do I enable Hibernate on my machine?

How do I enable/disable passwords when resuming from hibernate/standby?

How can I put my machine in ‘standby’ mode?

Does the new Microsoft IntelliPoint software 3.0 software install on NT/Windows 2000?

Does the new Microsoft IntelliType Pro software install on NT/Windows 2000?

My PNP PCI cards do not all work in Windows NT.

How do I enable bus mastering (DMA) in Windows 2000?

How do I set the DVD region in Windows 2000?

How do I reset the DVD region count?

How do I disable bus mastering on the 3COM 3C590 card?

 

 

Installation

How do I install NT Workstation 4.0?

How do I install NT Server?

I want to install DOS and Windows NT, how should I do this?

Installation hangs when detecting the hardware.

Is it possible to install NT without using boot disks or temp files?

Does NT have to be installed on the C drive?

There is a file \Support\Deptools\<system>\ROLLBACK.EXE. What is it?

I have NT installed, how do I install DOS?

How do I convert NT Workstation to NT Server?

I have bought a new disk, how do I move NT to this new disk?

Can I upgrade from Windows95 to NT 4.0?

How do I remove NT from a FAT partition?

How do I remove NT from a NTFS partition?

How do I install the Iomega Parallel Disk Drive?

How do I install at tape drive on NT Server?

How do I install the NEC 4×4 CD changer?

What are symbol files, and do I need them?

How do I install NT and Linux?

How do I install NT over the network?

Is it possible to use Disk Duplication to Distribute Windows NT?

How do I perform an unattended installation?

Is it possible to specify unique items during an unattended install?

How do I automatically install applications as part of the unattended installation?

Install detects the wrong video card and locks the installation.

How do I upgrade from NT 3.51 to NT 4.0?

When I use an unattended installation, how do I avoid the Yes at the license agreement?

I have NT installed, how do I install Windows95?

How do I remove Windows95/Dos from my NT system?

I can’t create a NTFS partition over 4GB during installation.

I cannot upgrade my 4.0 NT installation with the NT 4.0 upgrade CD.

How do I create the NT installation disks?

How can I use a Network card that is not one of those shown with Network Client Administrator?

How can I make domain users members of local Admin group during an unattended install?

I have problems running a program as part of the unattended installation?

I have Windows NT installed, how do I install Windows 98?

I have Windows 98 installed, how do I install NT?

I have Windows NT 5.0 installed but when I try to install Windows NT 4.0 the install fails.

I want to install Windows 98 and NT, what file system should I use?

How do I manually install SCSI drivers before the autodetect of installation?

During installation of Windows NT Server 5.0 the type of server cannot be set. – Windows 2000 only

How do I delete the recycle bin as part of an unattended installation.

During an unattended installation I am prompted for an IP address if 0 is specified.

How do I map a network drive during an unattended installation?

How can I install Windows 2000 on a machine with less than 64MB of memory? – Windows 2000 only

How do I disable the Installation of Exchange during installation?

My evaluation period has expired on my NT installation, why?

How do I install on a disk larger than 8GB?

How can I stop the installation of My Briefcase during NT installation?

How can I control which accessories are installed during an unattended installation?

How do I use SmartDrv?

How can I upgrade a NFR NT installation to full Retail?

How can I stop IE 2.0 being installed as part of installation?

How can I remove the Linux LILO Boot Manager?

How can I recreate the Windows NT installation disks?

I have Windows 98 installed on C: with FAT32, how do I install NT?

How can I stop the ‘Welcome to Windows NT’ screen during setup?

I receive an error message “The System is not fully installed”, what can I do?

How do I add a Network Install tab to Windows NT 4.0?

How can I disable the ‘Configure Server Wizard’ in Windows 2000?

How do I install the Remote Installation Service?

How do I move the distribution point for Remote Installation Services?

How do I create a bootable Remote Installation Service client disk?

What operating systems can I clone?

How can I configure the Remote Installation Service options?

How can I install using the Remote Installation Service disk?

How do I create a new Remote Installation Service image?

How do I create a bootable Windows 2000 installation CD-ROM?

Where is Setup Manager in Windows 2000?

What is the Microsoft Installer Package format?

How do I create a MSI file from a legacy application?

How can I publish an MSI file?

How can I run programs during the GUI phase of 2000 installation?

How can I use an unattended answer script when installing through a bootable CD-ROM?

Underscores (_) in my computer names are changing to dashes (-) in Windows 2000.

How to setup NT Server 4.0 on greater then 4gig Hard Drive without Partition Magic or Atapi.sys.

How can I specify an alternate HAL during Windows 2000 installation?

Getting a Thinkpad OEM installed version of NT to occupy only one partition.

How can I test if my installation can be upgraded to Windows 2000?

What switches are available for Windows 2000 installation?

How do I install Windows 2000?

How do I deploy old applications in Windows 2000 via ZAP files?

What are the upgrade paths for Windows 2000?

Some BackOffice 4.5 components do not install on Windows 2000.

I’m unable to upgrade Windows 9x to Windows 2000 in a dual boot environment.

How can I configure extra Plug and Play drivers for a Windows 2000 installation?

Unsigned drivers are stopping my unattended installations.

What are the directories I can have under $OEM$ for an unattended installation in Windows 2000?

DontDisplayLastUserName setting is lost in upgrade from NT 4.0 to Windows 2000.

How do I enable ACPI on my machine/change the HAL?

How do I disable/enable ACPI on my machine during installation?

The Administrator password I set during unattended installation is ignored.

 

 

Internet Explorer 4.0/5.0

How can I remove the Active Desktop?

How can I get past the “Active Desktop Recovery” page?

What keyboard commands can I use with Internet Explorer 4.0?

How can I create a keyboard shortcut to a web site?

How can I customize folders with web view enabled?

How can I change the icons in the Quick Launch toolbar?

I have lost Show Desktop/View Channels from the Quick Launch bar, help!

How do I change the default Search Engine?

How do I remove the Internet Explorer icon from the desktop?

How can I browse off-line?

How can I reclaim wasted space by Microsoft’s Internet E-mail readers?

I cannot specify a download directory when I download a file.

Internet Explorer opens .EXE files instead of Downloading them.

How can I change the default start page?

I have forgotten the content advisor password.

Where can I download IE 5.0 beta?

How do I clear Internet Explorers History?

How can I modify IE’s toolbar background?

How can I restore the IE animated logo?

Are there any Easter Eggs in Internet Explorer 5.0?

How can I stop users accessing local drives via Internet Explorer?

What additional restrictions are available in Internet Explorer IE4.01 SP2 and above?

How can I configure proxy settings in Internet Explorer 5.0?

How can I install Internet Explorer 4.0 without adding the IE icon to the desktop?

How do I use the Internet Explorer 5.0 repair tool?

I have forgotten the content advisor password under Windows 9x/IE 5.0.

The tab key does not select the right hand pane in a IE5 help search.

How do I turn off Internet Explorer AutoComplete?

Where can I get the patch for the IE 5.0 DHTML problem?

I get an error when I try and install Internet Explorer 4.0 using Active Setup.

How do I set an Internet Explorer favorite icon for my web site?

How can I detect if Windows Update is installed on a machine?

Internet Explorer Admin Kit version of IE 5.0 replaces the 128 bit encryption on Windows 2000.

How can I start Internet Explorer without the toolbars?

 

 

Internet Information Server

What is IIS?

How do I install Internet Information Server?

What is Internet Service Manager?

What is Index Server?

What are Active Server Pages?

How can I configure the Connection Limit?

How do I change the default file name?

How can I enable browsers to view the contents of directories on the server?

How can I configure the FTP welcome message?

How do I configure a virtual server?

How can I administer my IIS server using a web browser?

How can I configure FTP to use Directory Annotation?

Only the first line of the Directory Annotation is shown.

How can I configure the amount of IIS Cache?

How do I create a virtual directory?

How to install FrontPage Extensions on Beta 2? – Windows 2000 only

What fixes are available for IIS?

How do I specify more than one default document?

How can I move my IIS server to another machine?

Front Page Search Component always returns No Documents Found running IIS4 and FP 98exts, why?

How to stop the NT4 Option Pack/Windows 2000 SMTP service from advertising 8bitmime?

How do I enable Index Server in Windows 2000?

How do I create a new Index Server catalog?

I receive an Index Server error ‘Query Is Too Expensive’, why?

I receive error ‘The catalog is corrupt’ when performing an Index Server search, what can I do?

How can I stop hidden files etc. being returned by Index Server queries?

How can I control the amount of resource used by the Index service? – Windows 2000

How can I stress test my IIS server?

How can I change the number of threads IIS uses?

How can I limit bandwidth/processor usage for IIS?

How do I enable FTP resume?

Statistics Server will not run on IIS 5.0?

How can I host multiple web sites on a single IP address?

How can I allow non administrators to publish to a FrontPage web site?

How can I disable command shell from within IIS?

How can I disable parent paths in IIS?

How do I configure Index Server catalogs?

 

 

License

How is NT Licensed?

How can I view what licenses I have installed/used?

How do I install extra licenses?

How do I convert from Per Server to Per Seat?

How can I reset the License Information?

How can I run the License Manager software on a NT Workstation?

 

 

Macintosh

How do I add the services for Macintosh?

How can I read a Macintosh disk from Windows NT?

Does NT RAS support AppleTalk?

Can NT act as an AppleTalk client?

How can I make a Macintosh PPP connection to Windows NT RAS?

I am unable to write to the Microsoft UAM folder from the Macintosh?

Is there an Outlook (Exchange Server) client for Macintosh?

What configuration is needed for Mac’s to work with Proxy Server 2.0?

I am unable to connect to the server using the Mac Outlook client, why?

My Mac hangs if I connect to an NT share and don’t have full permissions for the directory root.

Large file copies to/from Macintosh crash NT Server, what can I do?

 

 

MS-SQL Server

How do I install SQL Server 6.5?

How do I register a SQL Server with SQL Enterprise Manager?

How can stop and start the SQL services?

How do I modify the sa password for SQL?

How do I visually edit/view data in a SQL database?

I am getting a message ‘dbprocess dead or not enabled’ running my query.

How can I add/amend/delete columns?

I am getting a blue screen / completely hung machine / server restart on my SQL Server/client.

Where are the cascade update/delete functions in SQL Server?

How can I issue a SQL command that uses a variable for the tablename, columns etc?

Why does my transaction-log fill up when I use fast-bcp?

Why can’t I backup/restore my SQL Server database to the network?

Can I do a SQL backup to a tape drive on another server?

I have a query that seems to lock other users out of the system.

Should I apply SQL SP4?

How do I transfer data from another DBMS/format to SQL Server?

Why can’t I get at a network file when I run a program from xp_cmdshell?

Is MS SQL Server Y2K compliant?

How can I change the owner of an object in SQL?

I’ve just changed NT domain for my SQL Server/clients and am unable to connect.

Are there any “easter eggs” in SQL Server?

How do I encrypt fields in SQL Server?

What tools are available to produce entity relationship diagrams for SQL Server?

Where is the SQL Server FAQ?

Which SQL net-lib is the fastest?

I’m having trouble installing SQL Server.

I am missing the whole of MSDB, or just some tables – how do I create them?

Why do my device sizes appear as negative values in SQL EM?

How do I do row-level locking on SQL Server?

How many bytes can I fit on a page in SQL Server and why?

I am getting a gpf/registry error installing SQL Server – what is happening?

How do I change the sort-order or character set for a SQL Server database?

What SQL servicepack am I running?

My SQL Server database has been marked “suspect” – what can I do?

How do I remove the tempdb database from master?

What are the changes/differences between vX and vY of SQL Server?

How can I speed up SQL Server applications running over slow links?

How can I fix a corruption in a system table?

Why can’t I connect Enterprise Manager to my local copy of SQL Server?

What is the limit on the number of tables in a query in SQL Server?

I’m doing a transfer using the SQL EM transfer tool, and not only is it not transferring the objects.

What registry entries does SQL Server use?

How can I view the SQL Server log?

How can I upgrade the 120-day evaluation version to the full SQL version?

I’m not seeing anything in the current activity screen in SQL EM.

How can I output records/messages to a flat file from inside a SQL Server TSQL script?

My SQL Server database is showing as “recovering”.

I am getting a SQL Server error message “login failed”.

Can I run SQL Server on the same machine as Oracle, Exchange etc.?

Why do my SQL Server identity values get out of synch causing gaps/duplicates etc.?

How can I restrict access to my SQL Server so that it only allows certain machines to connect?

How can I restrict access to my SQL Server so that it only allows certain programs to connect?

How does SQL Server clear up orphaned connections?

Why does the SQL Server Database Maintenance Wizard warn about databases greater than 400Mb?

Why does my SQL Server log show that it’s still full? – I have truncated it.

How do I connect to SQL Server from a non-microsoft machine?

How can I completely uninstall SQL Server?

What does dbcc traceon(208) mean in SQL Server?

How do I install SQL Mail?

I’ve got a problem/query with the beta of SQL Server 7.0. Where can I get help?

Why do I have problems revoking permissions on some tables with SQL Server?

What hardware/software can I run SQL Server on?

Why is a SQL Server restore (LOAD DATABASE) so much slower than a dump database?

What are the *.DMP files that appear in the SQL Server log directory?

Can I do an NT defrag on a SQL Server .DAT device/file?

Can I compress a SQL Server .DAT device/file?

Why can’t I install SP4 for SQL Server to my Win95 machine like the readme says I can?

I’m getting an error 1117 in SQL Server. Can I rebuild the extents somehow?

Why can’t I get at a network file when I run a program with xp_cmdshell from SQL Server?

I am having problems with SQL Server running bcp from xp_cmdshell.

How do I store/retrieve text and image data in SQL Server?

How can I amend the system tables in SQL Server?

I am having problems installing a SQL Service pack.

How can I move a SQL Server device from one disk to another, or rename it?

How can I recover a SQL Server database when all I have left is the .DAT device?

How can I re-install SQL Server without losing any data under a new version of NT I have installed?

How can I install SQL Server client tools in unattended mode?

How can I access data across two separate databases in SQL Server?

How can I transfer SQL Server data between an Intel box and an Alpha?

I can’t run SQL Server Enterprise Manager.

I’ve put tempdb in ram and now I can’t restart my SQL Server.

How do I transfer data between SQL Server databases / across servers?

What packages are available to do source control on SQL Server SP’s, DDL etc.?

Where can I get the ANSI92 SQL information from.

How do I connect to SQL Server through a firewall?

I’m getting a sort failed 1501 message on SQL Server – what’s going on?

I’m getting a 1112 error on SQL Server – what’s going on?

Why do I get the message WARNING: Process being freed while holding Dataserver semaphore in SQL Server.

What are good SQL Server books? And other sources of reference.

Where can I get SQL Server hot-fixes from?

How can I create a user-defined function in SQL Server?

How can I pass an array of values to a SQL Server stored-procedure?

How can I delete duplicate rows from a SQL Server table?

My SQL Server errorlog is filling up with entries. How can I switch or truncate it?

Which sort-order should I choose for my SQL Server for the fastest performance?

Why is my application locking up in SQL Server?

Where can I get the SQL Server Programmers Toolkit?

I’m getting an error 80004005 message connecting to SQL Server – what’s going on?

Is it safe to clear down the msdb..sysbackuphistory table in SQL Server?

I’m having problems getting more than x connections from a 16-bit client to SQL Server

How can I restrict the number of rows returned to my query in SQL Server?

I can’t use a tape-drive with SQL Server, but it works ok with NT Backup. Why?

SQL Mail keeps hanging – meaning I have to restart SQL Server to clear it.

How can I convert a string to “proper” case in SQL Server?

Where can I get Embedded SQL for SQL Server?

Does SQL Server support Unicode?

Where can I download SQL Server utilities, service packs etc.?

How can I disble the dial-up remote network prompt with the SQL Server GUI tools?

Error message : Failed to obtain TransactionDispenserInterface: XACT_E_TMNOTAVAILABLE.

Should I amend the SQL Server “Backup Buffer Size”?

What is SQLHDTST.EXE for SQL Server and where do I get it?

How can I install the 32-bit SQL Server client for NT or Windows 9x?

I am getting a message GetOverLappedResult() from a SQL Server query.

What does the SQL Server error message Lazywriter: WARNING, couldn’t find slot, 8/8, scanned 8 mean?

I have a corrupt SQL Server table that I can’t drop. What can I do?

Why can’t I BCP a Unix file into SQL Server? I get UNEXPECTED EOF messages.

What can’t I do with SQL Enterprise Manager under Win9x?

I am getting a message “Protocol error in TDS Datastream” from a SQL Server query.

Why is SQL Server slower than Access/FoxPro/DBase etc.

Can I turn SQL Server logging off?

What tools are available to debug stored-procedures under SQL Server?

Why do I get an error “Error: 702, Severity: 20, State: 1” running a SQL Server query?

What do the bufwait and writelog errors in SQL Server mean?

Who are Microsoft Product Support Services?

What is a “SQL Server MVP” and how do I become one?

I’m getting an access denied or CreateFile message when connecting to SQL Server.

How can I automate the scripting of a database/objects in SQL Server?

Why is the date I get via select getdate() wrong in SQL Server?

Where is the pointer to master stored in SQL Server? How can I move the master database?

Why do I see page faults/sec above 0 when I have a dedicated SQL Server machine?

How do I configure a connection to use tcp-ip sockets with SQL Server?

How can I do a crosstab function using standard TSQL in SQL Server?

How can I run an external (non-SQL) program/dll etc. from within a TSQL SQL Server script?

What specification hardware do I need to run SQL Server for good performance?

How can I stop a SQL Server process?

I get an ODBC error.

I’ve forgotten the sa password for SQL Server – what can I do?

Why does my SQL Server code sometimes respond slower than normal when I haven’t changed anything?

Should I apply SP5? Will it cause more problems than it fixes?

Do I really need 166Mhz Pentium processors to run SQL Server 7.0?

Does SQL Server run under Win2000/NT5?

How do I change the name of SQL Server?

Why has my tempdb in SQL Server filled up?

Mail messages are stuck in my outbox with SQL Mail.

I am getting an error “Msg 2503, Level 16, State 1 Table Corrupt” on my SQL Server – what can I do?

I am getting an error 2521 on my SQL Server – what can I do?

I am getting an error 605 on SQL Server – what can I do?

I get an error #610 – Maximum number of databases that may be accessed by a transaction is x.

I’m getting a “bad token” error message from SQL Server – what causes this?

Why do I get slow or no connections to SQL Server using IPX from my Win3x and Win9x clients?

I’m getting the following error with SQL 7 regarding DTS inability to transform data.

With SQL Server should I get more processors or faster processors?

How can I get ISQL.EXE to return a DOS errorlevel for me to test?

Does SQL Server have any built-in functions to work with julian dates?

Why can I connect to SQL Server with the tcp-ip sockets netlib and not named-pipes

Should I apply NT 4.0 SP4 to my SQL Server system?

Are there any resources or tools to aid in an Oracle PL/SQL to SQL Server TSQL conversion.

What is a reproduction (repro) script that I need to produce for a SQL Server bug?

Do SQL Service Packs have to be applied in order or can I just apply the latest one?

Is there an Access upsizing wizard to SQL Server 7.0?

Why can’t I see master, msdb etc. in SQL 7 EM? Also I can’t see the system tables in user databases.

What versions of SQL 7 are there and what are the differences?

When SQL Executive starts I get the error id 109.

What tools are available to stress/benchmark SQL Server?

Why can’t I stop/start SQL from SQL Enterprise Manager?

Should I use tempdb in ram?

Does SQL 7 support tempdb in ram?

I am getting an error 4409 selecting on a view ever since I applied SP5 to SQL 6.5.

I am getting an error 603 on database recovery in a SQL 6.0 system.

Why do I get an error “SQL Server Assertion : File:<xxx.c> Line=yyy Failed Assertion=’zzz’?

How can I overwrite expired backups on a disk device to save on space and still keep a rolling x days there?

Should I set “boost priority” to 1 or “SMP” to -1 on SQL Server?

What are all the dbcc commands for SQL Server?

How can I see how many objects are actually open in SQL Server?

How can I get the hardware spec of a SQL Server remotely?

How can I tell what columns in my SQL Server database are identity columns?

I get an errot trying to load a trace file into the SQL 7 Profiler/Index Tuning Wizard.

How do I install the SQL Server Internet Connector Software?

Can I use a Worm/MO/CD-Rom jukebox with SQL Server?

When I run the MDAC setup routine that comes with SQL Server SP5(a) why does it re-invoke the SP setup?

How can I replace/change/delete characters in a SQL Server column?

Does SQL Server support row numbers like Oracle does?

When I do a SQL Server trace I see sp_cursoropen and sp_cursorfetch commands being sent

Does SQL 7 support db-lib?

Why do I get a 6.5 group in my SQL 7.0 MMC list of servers?

Can I run SQL 6.5 and SQL 7.0 on the same machine?

How can I check whether SQL 6.5 or SQl 7.0 is installed without connecting to SQL and logging on?

I’m running a stored-proc from VB. Why does it return control before the SP has finished?

Can I install SQL on a Terminal Server machine?

How can I report a SQL Server bug to Microsoft?

Why do I get the SQL Server error “Msg 8412 – Schemas differ” when doing a LOAD TABLE?

Why do I get an error message when I try to run SQL 7 EM – “MMC – Snap-in failed to initialize”?

Why is the week number returned by SQL Server wrong?

How can I un-install a SQL Server servicepack and go back to the original version?

How can I transfer database diagrams from one SQL 7 server to another?

Why is SQL Server 7 slower than 6.5 at running some of my sp’s?

How can I modify the SQL 7 unattended install script?

Is there an Access upsizing wizard to SQL Server 7.0?

Do I really need a 166Mhz Pentium processor to run SQL Server 7.0?

Why do I get an error ‘Bad pointer 0xABCDEF encountered while remapping stored procedure’ in SQL Server?

Why does sp_processmail fail with ‘Supplied datatype for set_user is not allowed, expecting ‘varchar”?

How can I pad an integer value in SQL Server with zeroes?

Where can I get a JDBC driver for SQL Server?

Why is SQL Server better/worse than Oracle?

A query produces this error in SQL 7 ‘Internal Query Processor Error’.

Any known issues with IE5 and SQL Server 7.0?

How can I programmatically get the next free device number (vdevno) in SQL 6.5 and below?

How can I get random numbers from SQL Server? Using rand() I always get the same sequence.

What is the precedence of the SET commands, database options, session options etc. in SQL Server?

Why am I seeing entries in sysindexes (or sp_helpindex) for indexes I have not created?

I’m getting #deleted entries in resultsets from ODBC since installing SQL 7, why?

How can I use SQL 7’s HDQ facilities to get at NT domain or Exchange information?

How can I tell if my code is ANSI-92 compliant?

How can I automate the scripting/transfer of a database/objects in SQL Server?

If I lose my data file (MDF) in SQL 7 I can’t backup the log to recover to a point in time – why not?

What does the SQL Server error message “sort: bob write not complete after xx seconds.” mean?

How can I run a DTS package from within SQL Server – e.g. a stored-procedure?

Where can I get Embedded SQL for SQL Server?

How can I get file information using SQL Server?

My SQL Server database has been marked “loading” – what can I do?

How can I connect to SQL Server from a Macintosh?

I am getting problems with ODBC apps since upgrading to SQL 6.5 SP5a or installing SQL 7.

How do I configure multi-protocol net-lib to force encryption of packets in SQL Server?

How can I ORDER BY different fields based on a variable in SQL Server?

Can I upgrade SQL 4.x to 7.0 directly?

How can I programmatically kick off a SQL dump and get the stats on how far through it is back dynamically?

Where does the list of SQL Server’s come from in registration/dialog boxes?

Can I add comments to SQL Server’s schema like I can with Access?

How can I pass an array of values to a SQL Server stored-procedure?

How does SQL Server clear up orphaned connections?

How do I configure the debugger in Visual Studio to work with SQL 7?

How can I connect from Delphi to SQL 7?

Why does my copy of SQL Server say it is the 120 day eval edition when it is the full commercial copy?

Why do I get a “variable is not declared” inside my EXEC statement?

What is the equivalent of the IIF command in SQL Server?

What does the red zig-zag line next to a server name in SQL Enterprise Manager mean?

Why do I get the error ‘An unknown full-text failure (80004005)’?

Why does the tcp-ip net-lib not appear as an option in SQL Setup?

How much longer will MS support SQL 6.5 for?

How can I tell whether a table is a system (Microsoft) table in SQL 7?

Where can I get SQL 7.0 SP1?

Why do I get “SQL Server has run out of locks” error message with SQL 7 – I thought it dynamically allocated them?

How do I configure the client query time-out for SQL Server?

How can I migrate from Access to SQL Server?

What does “bufdiscard: WARNING, page xx (dbid n, bp 0xzzzzzzzz) has stat0x10080(), skipping” mean?

Can I replicate/connect/whatever to SQL Server over the Internet?

How can I get ISQL.EXE to return a DOS errorlevel for me to test?

What programming languages can I write an extended stored-procedure in?

Does SQL Server 7.0 support XML?

Where can I get details on the layout of the TDS protocol that SQL Server uses to talk to clients?

Why can’t I use a GO in a stored-procedure?

Can SQL Server backup to a tape unit on another server?

How can I restore a single table in SQL 7?

How can I calculate someone’s age in SQL Server?

Where can I get the ANSI92 SQL information from.

Why do I get arithmetic overflows and ‘string truncated’ errors with SQL 7? I didn’t with 6.5.

Why do I get an “UNEXPECTED EOF” message in BCP?

Should I use char or varchar? What are the advantages?

How can I clear SQL Server’s procedure cache?

What registry entries does SQL Server’s client use?

Why do I get NULL when adding/concatenating a NULL value with SQL 7? I didn’t with 6.5.

How can I remove unwanted carriage-returns and line-feeds from a SQL table?

Is there a DATE function for SQL Server? I don’t want to hold the time.

How can I run a DTS package from within SQL Server – e.g. a stored-procedure?

Are there any examples of heterogeneous data queries from SQL 7 to other sources?

Why am I getting a message ‘The Enterprise Edition server component cannot be installed on Windows NT Server using this CD.’ installing SQL 7?

Can I load a SQL 6.5 dump or device file into SQL 7?

How do I know which version of MDAC I am running?

Does SQL Server have memory leaks? How can I tell?

Can I install SQL 7 and MSDE on the same machine?

I am trying to upgrade MSDE to full SQL Server and getting an error ‘You cannot install a version which is older (7.00.623) than the version on your machine (7.00.677)

Can I create SQL Server databases on network drives?

Should I apply NT 4.0 SP5 to my SQL Server system?

I can’t see the SQL performance counters in PerfMon. What could be wrong?

How do I connect to SQL Server from PERL?

Where does SQL server store the permissions on tables?

Why can’t I use RCMD.EXE via xp_cmdshell from SQL Server?

I have a corrupt log file – can I rebuild it?

How can I recover data from a SQL table that is corrupt with a bad page/pointer?

How can I clear a table and reset the identity back to 0?

Why would I get a message “Retrying row fetch:rowoffset entry n out of range (pg% obj%, db %)” from SQL Server?

How can I restrict the number of rows returned to my query in SQL Server?

Why can’t I shrink my database any smaller than xxx Mb?

What does sp_sdidebug do?

Should I upgrade to SQL 7.0? What are the known bugs?

What happened to the gui for column level permissions in SQL 7?

Under SQL 6.5 a user of ISQL/W or other tools could only see the databases they had permission to in the drop down boxes, not under 7.0, why?

Why does my ODBC v2 application not work with SQL 7? Why do I get a gpf in VBDB300.DLL?

Should I apply SP1 for SQL 7? Are there any known issues?

Why do I get an error in sqlsspi.c?

What is the equivalent of an Oracle synonym in SQL Server?

Does SQL Server support tape-loaders?

Does SQL Server support before and after (pre and post) triggers? What about row vs set triggers?

Where can I get examples of XP code for SQL Server?

I can run some SQL code or a DTS package myself fine, but when I run it using the SQL Scheduler it doesn’t work – why not?

How can e-mail with SQL Server without using an MS-Mail or Exchange server?

How can I transfer DTS packages from one SQL 7 server to another?

As a user of Digital/Compaq Alpha technology how does MS dropping support affect SQL Server?

How can I check with SQL whether a table is already there or not?

What does a wait type of CXPacket mean?

Why do I get an error – ‘DTS Wizard Error – CoCreateInstance Class not Registered’?

How can I insert the output of a dbcc command into a SQL Server table?

Why do I get weird messages using SQL 7’s MMC on Windows 2000 RC1?

What does a wait type of CXPacket or Exchange mean?

When would I use dbcc gaminit in SQL Server?

I’ve overallocated memory for SQL Server and now it won’t start – what can I do?

I have filled the model database’s log and now SQL won’t start with a 1105 error – what can I do?

I’m installing SQL Server and am getting a problem with ODBC

Why do I only get 255 characters back in a column in Query Analyzer?

How can I find duplicate rows in SQL Server?

How can I get a count for all tables in a database?

Why do I get an error “CANNOT GENERATE SSPI CONTEXT”?

How can I see what line a stored-procedure is on?

How can I list all available SQL Servers in my application?

How can I access Exchange stores from SQL Server?

Why does ISQL/W gpf when I move the mouse pointer with an Intellimouse.

How can I tell if a service is running from SQL?

What’s happened to SQL_PRESERVE_CURSORS in SQL 7.0?

Why does only one cpu get used with my SQL 6.5 system for an extremely complex/long running query?

How can I get on a beta program for new versions of SQL/OLAP/MSEQ etc?

How can I do a case-sensitive comparison on a SQL Server installed with a case-insensitive sort-order?

How can I configure SQL Server to listen on another net-lib? How can I tell what net-libs are being used?

Why do I get an error message “Not enough server storage is available to process this request”?

Why won’t my log shrink in SQL 7?

How can I use Lotus Notes for SQL Mail?

Why do I get invalid rows returned containing hyphens when my where clause doesn’t specify them?

Why is the week number returned by SQL Server wrong?

How can I get something added to the SQL Server wishlist?

In SQL 6.5 why does passing a 256 byte character string to an SP expecting a TEXT field produce a NULL when checked?

How can I clear SQL Server’s procedure cache?

How can I turn an IP address held as a string to the four separate integers?

How can I re-install just the MMC for SQL Server?

I need to move SQL Server to a new NT server – what are my options?

I’m getting an error message – “Cannot Load DLL ‘SDI’ Reason 126 ( The specified Module Cannot be found)” when doing a stored-procedure debug on SQL Server. Or breakpoints just don’t fire.

Where can I get more info on the spt_values table?

Where can I get a diagram of the SQL 7 system tables?

SQL Server hangs and becomes unresponsive – what can I do?

I’m having trouble with SQL Server unattended install, what could be wrong?

How can I change the default location for database files that SQL creates?

How can I tell if a column for a table already exists?

How can I programmatically create a DSN?

What is the dllhost.exe process on my machine that seems to use a lot of CPU?

What is the maximum number of rows in a SQL table? What other size limitations are there?

Are SQL Server userid’s and passwords passed in clear on the network?

When I change a table definition it often invalidates any views on that table. How can I fix this without re-creating the view?

How can I script my database schema?

How does a client talk to SQL Server? What is a net-lib? What network protocols are used? What net-libs support NT authentication/encryption?

I am getting a “cfgchar” problem installing SQL Server 6.5 SP5?

How can I tell if a stored procedure was created with the ANSI NULLS setting on?

Does SQL Server have an ‘ON ERROR RESUME’ type function in TSQL to match the VB facility?

Why do I get the error ‘Cannot use file <logfile> because it was originally formatted with a different sector size

What is the maximum number of rows in a SQL table? What other size limitations are there?

What does the red lightning bolt next to a server in SQL EM mean?

Why can’t I backup/restore my SQL Server database to JAZ/ZIP drive from SQL EM?

How can I compare that the contents of two tables are identical?

How can I decrypt a SQL Server stored-procedure?

How do I drop the index related to a primary key? DROP INDEX doesn’t work..

How can I get the current time in GMT rather than local time?

What do MS mean by Internal vs External fragmentation in SQL Server?

How do I know whether SQL Server is in per-seat or per-server mode? How can I change it? How can I add licenses?

How can I list all databases on an SQL Server?

How can I list all user tables on an SQL Server?

How can I resolve the error ‘An error 1069 – (The service did not start due to a logon failure)’ for SQL Server?

SQL Server only runs under NT. What cheap/free database runs under Linux?

Why could the SQL version switch utility not work?

How can I read/write to a flat file from inside a SQL Server TSQL script/stored-procedure/trigger?

Why am I getting gpf’s/hangs running SQL tools under Windows 9x – I don’t get the same problems with Windows NT clients?

What can I do about handling blocking and deadlocks in SQL Server?

How can I install SQL 7.0 Desktop Edition from the Back Office 4.5 CD’s?

Why am I getting an error “The RAID set for database <xxx> is missing member number <x>. Backup or restore operation terminating abnormally”?

Does SQL Server Enterprise Edition perform better than Standard edition?

I am getting an error where only 10 users can connect. I have more licenses than this – what is going on?

I can’t see the SQL performance counters on the second node in my cluster? I can see the NT ones ones.

When might I want to use a surrogate key?

How can I run some SQL code every time SQL Server starts?

Why am I being blocked by spid -1? I am not able to kill it and have to restart SQL Server to get around it.

Why does the new ‘TOP’ command in SQL 7 not work? I get a syntax error. Also ALTER TABLE and other SQL 7 only commands.

Where can I get SP2 beta for SQL 7.0?

How can I make sure the SQL Server agent auto-starts when I start SQL Server?

What conferences covering SQL Server are coming up?

I’m having trouble installing SQL Server on Win9x

How can I select random rows from a SQL Server table?

Can I do a SQL Server backup to a tape drive on another server?

Why do I get an error ‘Msg 602, Level 21, State 3. Could not find row in Sysindexes for dbid ‘x’, object ‘yyyyyyyy’,index ‘z’.’ when running a SQL Server query?

I am getting an error 603 restoring a database ever since I applied SP5 to SQL 6.5?

What issues are there with SQL 7’s DTS function and Oracle.

What is the Microsoft Loopback adapter and why do I need it for SQL Server?

Where can I get an OLE-DB/ODBC/JDBC driver to connect SQL Server to product xyz?

I have a SQL Server process that shows as being in SPINLOOP. What does this mean?

Now that SQL 7.0 is released can I still buy SQL 6.5?

How can I convert a SQL date/time to just date?

 

 

MultiMedia

How do I disable CD AutoPlay?

How do I install a Joystick in NT?

How do I change my Soundcards Settings (IRQ)?

Does NT 4.0 support Direct X?

Does NT have a speaker driver?

How do I install my SoundBlaster Sound Card?

How do I install a WaveBlaster card?

I have lost the speaker icon from my task bar.

How can I get my PCI based sound card to work under Windows 2000?

How can I check my machines DirectX support?

 

 

NetWare

What about Netware?

What are Client Services for Netware?

What are Gateway Services for Netware?

How do I install Gateway Services for Netware?

How do I attach to a NetWare 3.12 Server?

How do I attach to a NetWare 4.1 Server?

What are File and Print Services for Netware?

What is Directory Service Manager?

What is Migration Tool for Netware?

What are the NT equivalents of NetWare Rights?

NWCONVE.EXE is not migrating your users and groups.

I have very slow performance saving documents to a FPNW server.

How can I disable the print separator page when printing to a NetWare print server?

How can I stop my machine complaining about NWLNKRIP service not starting?

NetWare migration tool cannot find the domain controller.

How can I assign NetWare variables to NT variables?

I get print banners and confirmations through CSNW even though they are deselected, what can I do?

 

 

Network

How do I assign User Rights for a standalone server (not the PDC/BDC) in a domain?

I can’t FTP to my server, although the FTP service is running?

How do I validate my NT Logon against a UNIX account?

Can I synchronize the time of a NT Workstation with a NT Server?

How can I send a message to all users?

How do I change a Workstations Name?

How do I stop the default admin shares from being created?

How do I disconnect all network drives?

How do I hide a machine from Network Browsers?

How do I remote Boot NT?

How can I get a list of users currently logged on?

How do I configure NT to be a gateway to an ISP?

How do I install the FTP server service?

How do I get a list of all connections to my PC?

How can I get the Ethernet address of my Network card?

How can I configure the preferred Master Browser?

Is it possible to protect against Telnet attacks?

What Telnet Servers/Daemons are available for Windows NT?

How do I install MSN under NT?

What FireWall products are available for NT?

How do I install the Remoteboot Service?

How many connections can NT have?

How can I secure a server that will be a Web Server on the Internet?

How can I stop a user logging on more than once?

How can I get information about my domain account?

A machine is shown as Inactive in Server manager when it is not.

How do I automatically FTP using NT?

How can I change the time period used for displaying the password expiration message?

How can I modify share permissions from the command line?

How can I change the protocol binding order?

What criteria are used to decide which machine will be the Master Browser?

How can I get a list of MAC to IP addresses on the network?

How can I control the list of connections shown when mapping a network drive?

How do I grant users access to a network printer?

How can I create a share on another machine over the network?

I get errors accessing a Windows NT FTP Server from a non Internet Explorer browser.

How can I view which machines are acting as browse masters?

Is there any way to improve the performance of my modem internet connection?

How can I remotely tell who is logged on at a machine?

How do I remove a NT computer from a domain?

How can I shutdown a number of machines without going to each machine?

How can I close all network sessions/connections?

How can I connect to a server using different user accounts?

How do I set the comment for my machine that is displayed in Network Neighborhood?

How can I define multiple NetBIOS names for a machine?

How can I manage my NT domain over the net?

How can I remotely manage services?

Net.exe reference.

How can I make net.exe use the next available drive letter?

How can I check if servers can communicate via RPC’s?

How can I reduce the delay when using multiple redirectors?

How can a DOS machine connect to an NT domain?

Where are Windows 2000 network connections stored in the registry?

How do I install the loopback adapter in Windows 2000?

How can I turn off/on connection ghosting?

How can I map to an FTP server as a drive?

How can I create a browse election log file?

How do I enable the telnet server in Windows 2000?

How do I enable plain text passwords with the telnet server in Windows 2000?

What is REXEC?

What REXEC daemons (REXECD) are available for NT/2000?

How do I add a network place in Windows 2000?

What are the NetBIOS suffixes (16th character)?

How can I stop UNC shares automatically being added to My Network Places?

Where do I get netdiag.exe and what is it?

 

 

Performance

How do I move my pagefile?

How big and where should my Pagefile be?

Users complain server response is slow, but when I use the server everything is fine.

Is there a RAM disk in NT4.0?

How can I monitor disk performance?

How can I tell if I need a faster CPU?

I need to run a number of 16 bit apps, what is the best way to do this?

How can I run an Application at a higher priority?

How can I monitor processes that start after I start the Performance monitor?

How can I view information in the Event Log from the command line?

Is there anything to help diagnose performance problems?

Is there anyway to output performance logs directly to a comma separated file?

How can I control the amount of memory NT uses for file caching?

How can I stop Windows NT System Code and Drivers being paged?

How can I change the size of the pagefile?

How can I remotely change the size of a pagefile?

Performance Monitor is not listing all possible objects and counters.

How do I enable disk counters in Performance Monitor in Windows 2000?

 

 

Printing

How do I create a queue to a Network Printer?

How do I delete a network port (e.g. LPT3:)?

How do I configure my print jobs to wait until out of hours?

How can I disable the Printer PopUp message?

How do I change the Print Spool location?

How do I enable Print Auditing?

How do I enable drag and drop printing?

How do I configure a Print Separator Page?

How can I restrict which users can install local printer drivers?

How many printers can be on one NT Server?

How can I print to an ascii text file?

How do I set security on a printer?

I get the error “The print processor is unknown” when installing a printer.

Where in the registry is the default printer set?

When I try to print to a parallel device I receive error: System could not find the file.

How can I allow members of the Printer Operators group to Add Printers?

How can I configure NT as a print server for UNIX systems?

How can I audit the no. of pages printed by any particular user on an NT network?

How do I create a custom page size for a printer?

The additional NetBIOS name of my server does not work for print services.

How can I stop print jobs writing to the System Log?

How do I create a queue to a Network Printer in Windows 2000?

How can I view print jobs from the command line?

How can I delete a print job from the command line?

How can I add a printer to the send to context option?

Sharing printers between Unix and NT.

How can I set the default printer from the command prompt?

How can I maintain printer information for my domain?

What are the printer improvements in SP6 for NT 4.0?

How can I add a printer from the command line?

How can a printer be listed in the Active Directory?

How can I print from the command window/use lpt1 etc?

How can I check/replace incompatible Windows 2000 printer drivers?

How can I administer printers via the web?

 

 

Problem Solving

I have installed Office 97 now I can no longer use Desktop Themes.

I cannot delete a file called AUX.BAT or COM1!

The AT command does not work!

I can’t format a disk/ create an Emergency Repair disk?

When I change CD’s/access the floppy drive NT crashes.

After a new installation of NT, I can logon but no shell starts.

I have a Matrox Millenium graphics card and the windows blink and flash when moved.

When I start NT I get NTDETECT twice.

My desktop disappears after a crash.

I have installed a second CPU, however NT will not recognize it.

I reinstalled NT, now I cannot logon.

I have Windows 95 installed, and I am trying to start the NT installation but it fails.

An Application keeps starting every time I start NT.

Each time I start NT I get a file delete sharing violation?

Sometimes when I run a program or Control Panel applet it says “no disk in drive a:”.

When I try and create an Emergency Repair Disk I get an error that files are missing.

I have installed Service Pack 3, now I cannot run Java programs.

Every time I start NT, explorer is started showing the system32 directory.

I have removed my IDE CD-ROM drive, now NT will not boot.

I get the error, The procedure entry point WNetEnumCachedPasswords could not be located.

What information is shown in the Blue Screen of Death (BSOD) ?

I have created my own service, however on logoff the application stops.

I can’t install any software.

I get an error “This application is not supported by Windows NT”.

I have installed IE 4.0 now my shortcut icons are corrupt.

I have lost access to the root of the boot partition, now I can’t logon.

I receive the error: The procedure entry point WNetEnumCachedPasswords could not be located.

How can I perform a kernel debug?

How do I configure remote debugging?

I get the error “Not enough server storage is available to process this command”.

I can’t delete a directory called con.

I get an error when I try to export a profile other than Administrator.

I have chosen a screen resolution that has corrupted display and now I can’t restore it

I get error “Boot record signature AA55 not found (1079 found)”.

When I boot up NT, it pauses for about 30 seconds on the blue screen.

I receive a RDISK error, disk is full.

My Shortcuts try and resolve to UNC paths?

When I select a hyperlink or open a channel system32 folder opens?

When I try and use WinAT I get a Dr Watson error.

Drive mappings are being created by themselves.

I can’t create a partition over 1GB on an Adaptec 2940 SCSI controller.

I get a STOP 0x00000078 error.

A file Testdir.tmp is created on a shared volume which cannot be deleted.

How can I replace an in use NT system file?

I removed my folder association and cannot open any folders!

The batch file I schedule to run does not work with the /every switch.

I have a volume of type Unknown in Disk Administrator.

I am unable to use Start from the command line with files with spaces in.

I am not offered the option to install from an INF context menu.

How can I deallocate corrupt Memory?

I am unable to run certain 16 bit applications.

I have a service stopping NT from booting.

If I run winfile d: it starts Explorer?

I have problems with tips after Service Pack 4.

After installing Service Pack 4 my ATAPI/IDE ZIP drive is not available.

Disk power management does not work after Service Pack 4.

I get error: Your password must be at least 0 characters long.

What is Remote Explorer?

When I try and edit the default domain controller policy the local policy is shown, why?

My desktop icons are corrupt, what can I do?

How can I kill an orphaned process?

I have lost my executable association.

How can I save the BSOD information?

Why do I get the message ‘Initialization of USER32.dll or KERNEL32.dll’ failed?

Users are unable to logon to my Small Business Server even though I have enough licenses.

How can I use path names longer than 255 characters?

I get error ‘Setup was unable to copy the following file CDROM.SYS’, why?

Logon scripts are hanging/looping, why?

The NTVDM and WOW subsystems cannot start correctly, what can I do?

What does message/error/event X mean?

When I double click on a MSI file it has no association, what can I do?

I am unable to stop a process from Task Manager even though I’m an Administrator, what can I do?

I am unable to run CHKDSK, it cannot lock or open volume for direct access.

I get a Blue-Screen of Death during setup, help!

After uninstalling Windows 98 I am unable to boot NT.

My last known good configuration is missing or corrupt and I can’t boot NT.

When I start Explorer I get a Dr Watson error, what can I do?

I get an error after installing IE 4.0 SP2 on a Terminal Server.

I get error ‘Program will not fit in memory’, what’s the cause?

After installing SP4/SP5 on NT 4.0 daylight saving is automatically enabled.

I’ve installed a Promise Ultra IDE card but NT/2000 will no longer work.

Some entries are missing from the Add/Remove programs control panel applet.

The default source path for my Windows 2000 installation is not correct.

What keys are available during startup of Windows 2000 to troubleshoot?

Installation of Windows 2000 hangs at the ‘Setup is inspecting your computer’, what can I do?

What logs are available to troubleshoot Windows 2000 installation problems?

Why are my AT and SOON commands not working properly?

I get error ‘CAPI: The install program could not open the signature file’ when installing SP5 hotfixes.

I get an event log, Crash Dump is Disabled, why?

I’m getting a BSOD at startup with error C0000135.

I’m unable to install Outlook 98, IE 5.0, error about log file command line.

NT 3.51 daylight saving update.

The SUBST command is not working correctly in Windows 2000.

I’m unable to install the Command Console on a mirror in Windows 2000.

I’m receiving Event ID 3013.

I don’t get sound on DOS games under NT.

I get an error event 1501 trying to start the Event Log service.

How can I configure a service to automatically restart if it stops?

I’ve disabled ACPI in my BIOS now Windows 2000 will not boot.

How to I upgrade/downgrade to a multi-processor system in Windows 2000?

My machine BSOD’s whenever I try to watch a DVD, what can I do?

I get ‘Error occurred getting driver list from inf file. Err=0’ when starting the SCSI control panel applet.

Where are the Dr Watson logs in Windows 2000?

I get a BSOD of death, SYSTEM_LICENSE_VIOLATION, what did I do?

I can’t install Office 2000 on Windows 2000.

I’m missing the Windows 2000 Advanced menu option on startup.

I can’t access the information in memory.dmp as a normal user.

I cannot delete a file named con or nul.

How do I change the system disk on a Windows 2000 system?

I get an IRPStackSize event log every time I start Windows 2000.

Global.exe does not work with DNS domain names.

I’m unable to upgrade my Windows 2000 evaluation version to the full edition using a Windows 2000 upgrade CD.

I can’t load the basicdc.inf using the Security Configuration and Template editor or get errors in event log if I implement it?

I’m unable to view/delete pagefile.sys using the recovery console.

I get error messages when I try to eject/format/label a removable disk.

I’m getting a large number of event 2022 event logs.

I’m missing the ‘Computers Near Me’ My Network Places group.

 

 

Proxy Server 2.0

What is Proxy Server 2.0?

How do I install Proxy Server 2.0?

How do I install the client for the WinSock Service?

How do I remove the client WinSock Service?

How can I bypass the client Winsock?

How do I configure an Internet Browser to use the Web Proxy service?

How do I manage the Proxy Server?

How can I configure the Proxy server to automatically dial out to the ISP when needed?

How can I stop and start the Proxy services?

How can I use the Web based Proxy Server Administration software?

Which port does WinSock use?

How can I configure the RAS Autodisconnect?

How do I ban the Dilbert Zone using Proxy Server?ūüôā

How do I install Proxy Server 2.0 on Windows 2000?

How can I create custom error messages for Proxy Server?

Audio and Video are unavailable in NetMeeting via Proxy server, why?

How can I use Chat behind a Proxy server?

 

 

RAID

Does NT Workstation support RAID?

What RAID levels does NT Server Support?

How do I create a Stripe Set with Parity?

How do I recreate a broken Stripe Set?

How do I remove a Stripe Set?

Can NT be on a Stripe Set?

How do I create a Mirror Set (RAID 1)?

How do I break a Mirror Set?

How do I repair a broken Mirror Set?

Can I install NT on a stripe set?

I am unable to boot using on the Mirror disk.

I have reinstalled NT now I have lost all RAID/volume sets.

How do I create a RAID 5 set in Windows 2000?

How do I delete a RAID 5 set in Windows 2000?

How do I regenerate a RAID 5 set in Windows 2000?

How do I create a mirror set (RAID 1) in Windows 2000?

How do I break a mirror set (RAID 1) in Windows 2000?

 

 

RAS

How do I connect two Workstations using RAS?

Is it possible to dial an ISP using the command line?

How can I stop the RAS connections closing when I logoff?

How can I create a RAS Connection Script?

How can I debug the RAS Connection Script?

How do I configure RAS to connect to a leased line?

How can I disable RAS AutoDial?

RAS tries to dial out even on local resources.

I have connected via RAS to a server however I can only see resources on the machine I connect to.

How do I force the Logon Using Dialup Networking to be checked by default on the logon screen?

Where are the RAS phone book entries and settings stored?

How can I change the number of rings that RAS server waits for before answering?

How can I configure how long RAS Server waits before calling back a user when callback is enabled?

Whenever I connect via RAS I cannot connect to local machines on my LAN.

How can I disable the “Save Password” option in dial-up networking?

How can I set the number of Authentication Retries for Dial-Up connections?

How can I set the Authentication Time-out for Dial-Up connections?

Enabling 128-bit RAS Data Encryption.

Why does my RAS client have the wrong subnet mask, etc.?

How long is the lease on the IP address when issued to a RAS client from DHCP?

How can I disconnect users from the RAS server?

How can I disable the modem speaker when dialling?

How can I limit RAS callers to see only the machine they connect to rather than the whole network?

How do I install the Windows 98 Virtual Private Network adapter?

How do I install the Point To Point Tunneling Server?

How do I install the Windows NT Virtual Private Network client?

How can I remove the dial-up networking icon from My Computer?

I’ve connected two computers using two 56K modems but I never connect at more than 33Kb, why?

My modem is not supported by RAS, what can I do?

I get error ‘There is no answer’ from the PPTP server, why?

DEVICE.LOG does not capture modem commands, what can I do?

How do I create a dial-up connection in Windows 2000?

When loading a program, I get the error message “RASMAN.DLL failed to load”.

How can I enable 4.0 RAS servers in a Windows 2000 domain?

How can I disable 4.0 RAS servers in a Windows 2000 domain?

How can I get the Dial-Up Networking information in Windows 2000?

 

 

Recovery

How do I create an Emergency Repair Disk?

How do I create a NT Boot Disk?

I get the error “Can’t find NTLDR”

How do I recover a lost administrator password?

I have set a drive to no access, now no-one can access it.

If I copy a file with Explorer or from the command line, the permissions get lost.

How can I get my taskbar back?

I get the error “NTOSKRNL.EXE missing or corrupt” on bootup.

How do I configure Directory Replication?

How do I remotely create an Emergency Repair Disk?

How do I promote a Backup Domain Controller to the Primary Domain Controller?

How do I reinstate my old PDC back into the Domain as the PDC?

What tuning can be performed on Directory Replication?

I am unable to perform a repair without a CD-ROM drive?

Changing the Administrator password if you have forgotten it.

Where is RDISK in Windows 2000?

How do I install the Recovery Console?

How do I create a bootable CD-ROM containing ERD Commander/Professional?

How do I enable kernel only crash dumps?

What’s the difference between manual and fast recovery in Windows 2000?

I’ve deleted NTBOOTDD.SYS and can’t find it anywhere.

 

 

Registry

What is the Registry?

What files make up the registry, and where are they?

How do I restrict access to the registry editor?

What is the maximum registry size?

Should I use REGEDIT.EXE or REGEDT32.EXE?

How do I restrict access to a remote registry?

How can I tell what changes are made to the registry?

How can I delete a registry value/key from the command line?

How can I audit changes to the registry?

How can I clean up/remove invalid entries from the registry?

I make changes to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\HARDWARE but they are lost on reboot.

What data types are available in the registry?

How can I automate updates to the registry?

How do I apply a .reg file without the success message?

How can I remotely modify the maximum registry size?

I can’t update DWORD values using REG.EXE.

How can I install a .inf file from the command line?

How can I compress the registry?

Access to the registry tools has been stopped, is there any way to get access?

Where does Windows 2000 store the last key accessed?

What’s new in the Windows 2000 version of RegEdit?

How do I add a DWORD value from a .INF file?

 

 

Security

How do I enable auditing?

How do I view/clear the security log?

Where can I get more information on the Event Viewer?

Where can I get information on NT security problems?

How can I restore the default permissions to the NT structure?

How can I copy files and keep their security and permissions?

How do I enable auditing on certain files/directories?

How do I use the System Key functionality of Service Pack 3?

How do I remove the System Key functionality of Service Pack 3?

How can I configure the system to stop when the security log is full?

How can I clear the pagefile at shutdown?

How do I enable strong password filtering?

How do I set what happens during a crash?

How can I configure the system to automatically reboot in the event of a crash?

How do I enable auditing on the SAM?

How can I enable strong protection on shared system objects?

How can I restrict access to objects from Anonymous accounts?

How do I enable SMB signing?

How do I disable LanManager challenge/response in NT?

How can I check the security of my passwords?

A description of Permissions in NT.

How can I restrict guest access to Event logs?

How can I enable auditing of base objects?

How can I configure my system to be C2 compliant?

How can I enforce an Internet access control policy?

What does System Key actually protect my passwords from?

What is a SID (Security ID)?

What security mailing lists exist for keeping up to date?

How can one protect against password hackers that use sniffers like l0pht?

How can one detect that users have cracked a password?

How is information enumerated through NULL session access, Remote Procedure Calls and IPC$?

How do I use the Security Configuration and Analysis snap-in?

What is Kerberos?

How is the shared key used by Kerberos distributed?

How is the long term key between a client and the KDC distributed?

How can I change the ticket lifetime used by Kerberos?

What is PKI?

What is a digital signature and how does it work?

What are secret keys?

 

 

Service Packs and Hotfixes

Service Packs and Hot fixes

What are the Q numbers and how do I look them up?

How do I install the Service Packs?

How do I install the Hot fix?

How do I remove a Hot fix?

How do I install Service Pack 3?

Emergency Repair Disk issues after installation of Service Pack 3.

How do I remove the Java Hotfix for Service Pack 3?

How do I install multiple Hotfixes at the same time?

How do I install Hotfixes the same time as I install Service Pack 3 onwards?

I have installed Service Pack 3, now I cannot run Java programs.

I have installed Service Pack 3, however the Policy Editor has not been updated.

How can I tell if I have the 128 bit version of Service Pack 3 installed?

How do I install a service pack during a unattended installation?

What order should I apply the Hot fixes?

I get an error message when I try to re-apply a hotfix after installing a service pack?

When should I reapply a Service Pack?

What is Option Pack 4?

How can I tell which version Service Pack I have installed?

I receive an error trying to install Service Pack 4 for NT 4.0.

Setupdd.sys is missing in Service Pack 4.

Important steps for installing Service Pack 4.

Uninstalling Service Pack 4.

How can I tell who installed/uninstalled Service Pack 4?

Service Pack 4 unattended installation switches.

New Event Logs in Windows NT 4.0 Service Pack 4.

When will Service Pack 6 for NT 4.0 be released?

I receive an error that setup.log cannot be found when installing a service pack.

How can I perform a function in a logon script depending on machines Service Pack version?

How can I check if I have SP6 or SP6a installed?

Is there a script that will reinstall a service pack and hotfixes then reboot?

How do I expand a service pack/hotfix without installing?

 

 

Support

What Newsgroups are good for NT information?

Where can I get more information?

 

 

System Configuration

How do I decrease the boot delay?

Where do I load ANSI.SYS?

How can I configure the local machine to perform a task at a set time?

How do I change the Organization name on NT?

How do I change the default location NT expects to find NT software for installation(i.e. CD)

How can I remove the Shut Down button from the login screen?

How can I Parse/Not Parse autoexec.bat?

How do I add a path statement in NT?

Can I change the default Windows Background?

How do I change the Start menu items under the line?

How can I restore the old Program Manager?

Is there a way to start NT in “Dos” mode?

How can I disable “Lock Workstation” when I press Ctrl-Alt-Del?

How can I make NT powerdown on shutdown?

How do I enable Ctrl-Esc to start Task Manager?

How can I allow non-Administrators to issue AT commands?

How do I control Access to Floppy Drives/CD-ROM drives?

I have DOS, Windows95 and NT installed, and want them all to show on the boot menu.

How do I remove an App from Control Panel?

How do I assign a drive letter to a removable drive?

How do I configure a default Screen Saver if no one logs on?

How do I configure the default screen saver to be the Open GL Text Saver?

How can I create a new hardware profile?

I have entries on the Remove software list that don’t work, how can I remove them?

How can I disable Dr. Watson?

How do I create a network share?

How do I connect to a network share?

How do I configure the boot menu to show forever?

How can I configure the machine to reboot at a certain time?

How can I configure Explorer to start with drive x: ?

How can I decrease the time my machine takes to shutdown/reboot?

How can I change the startup order of the services?

How can I configure the system so that certain commands run at boot up time?

What are the .cpl files in the system32 directory?

How can I create a non-network hardware configuration?

How can I remove the option “Press Spacebar for last known good config”?

How can I disable the OS2/POSIX subsystems?

How can I run a control panel applet from the command line?

How can I configure a program/batch file to run every x minutes?

What registry keys do the Control Panel applets update?

How can I run a script at shutdown time?

How can I create my own tips to be shown when NT starts?

How can I change the location of the event logs?

How can I configure the default Internet Browser?

How can I change the alert for low disk space on a partition?

Is it possible to delete/rename the Administrator account?

How can I tell NT how much secondary cache (L2) is installed?

What switches can be used in boot.ini?

How can I change the default editor used for editing batch files?

What are the default protections on an NTFS boot partition?

How do I configure the default keyboard layout during login?

How can I add my own information to General tab of the System Control Panel applet?

How can I change the program associated with a file extension?

How do I set a process to use a certain processor?

I have duplicate entries on my boot menu.

How can I stop a service from the command line?

How can I add the printer panel to the Start menu?

How can I hide the Administrative Tools on the Start menu?

How do I restrict access to the floppy drive?

How do I enable AutoLogon?

How do I disable AutoLogon?

How do I add a warning Logon message?

How do I stop the last logon name being displayed?

How can I stop people logging on to the server?

Users fail to logon at a server.

How do I enable NumLock automatically?

How do I limit the number of simultaneous logons?

%SystemRoot% is not expanded when I use it in a command.

How can I disable the Win key?

How do I set the number of Cached logons a machine stores?

How can I configure the system to run a program at logon time?

How can I install the Policy Editor on a Workstation?

How can I delete the “My Computer” icon?

How do I disable the file delete confirmation?

How can I switch the time between 24 hour and 12 hour?

How can I suppress boot Error Messages?

How can I enable/disable the Ctrl-Alt-Del to enter logon information? – Windows 2000 only

How can I stop the last username to logon from being displayed?

The screen saver can only be configured to start up to 60 minutes.

I have lost the ADMIN$ share.

How can I configure Notepad to wrap?

How do I modify the login timer for profiles?

How do I change the location for temporary files?

How do I modify system variables?

How do I disable the ability to change password?

How do I stop a process on a remote machine?

How do I install the Security Configuration Editor?

How can I get the cool UI effects to work on my P166 computer? – Windows 2000 only

How do I increase the number of Page Table Entries on my system?

How can I change the short date format from yy to yyyy?

How do I enable fast reboot on 4.0 SP4 and above?

How can I create a program alias?

How can I share my clipbook with other machines?

How can I stop tips showing on startup?

How can I configure Outlook Express to be the default News reader?

How can I modify the My Computer text to show logged on username and machine name?

How do I enable live scrolling on Word 97?

A useful tip for navigating in Explorer and the Registry Editor.

How can I automatically kill hung processes when I logoff?

How can I change the Info Tip for icons? – Windows 2000 only

How can I control who can eject ZIP disks? – Windows 2000

How can I configure monitor power off for the logon screen? – Windows 2000

What are the problems with workstations having the same SID?

How can I disable daylight saving time changes?

How can I improve I/O performance?

How can I configure the Windows 2000 System File Checker?

How to I install an Enterprise Certificate Authority?

How do I create a Certificate Trust List for the domain?

How can I lock a workstation from the command line?

How do I create a default association for files with no extension?

How do I create a default association for files with an unknown extension?

How do I set DLL files to use their own icon rather than the standard?

How can I make Explorer show the extension of known file types?

What are Super Hidden Files?

How can I view Super Hidden Files?

After upgrading from NT 4.0 to Windows 2000 the timeout in boot.ini has been reset to 30.

How can I force a check of protected system files in Windows 2000?

How can I disable the DLL cache in Windows 2000?

I can’t add or remove Accessories on a Windows 2000 professional machine.

How can I remove a device driver?

How do I remove the resource kit time service?

How can I configure event log wrapping in Windows 2000?

What are offline folders?

How do I set a folder as available/not available offline?

How do I configure a shared folder as automatically available offline?

How do I enable my computer to support offline folders/files?

How can I configure the time service in Windows 2000?

How can I configure Administrative Alerts in Windows 2000?

How can I tell if my Windows 2000 installation is registered?

How do I enable TAPI 2.1 support?

Configuring Dual fault tolerant mirrored drives.

What order are environment variables processed during logon?

How can I change the display order for the hardware profile list at startup?

How can I change the screen tip for a shortcut?

How can I enable network lockout for the Administrator account?

How can I remotely reboot, logout, shutdown a machine?

Where is the ‘ODBC Data Sources’ control panel applet in Windows 2000?

How do I view/create saved Directory Service, DNS and File Replication Service event logs?

How can I change the icon for drive letters?

How can I stop the Infotips being displayed for icons and drives?

How can I enable the Windows 2000 System File Checker to cache ALL DLL’s?

How can I move the DLL cache?

How can I disable the Start menu program scroll?

How can I restrict network browsing to users local workgroup/domain?

How can I stop users browsing computers in their local workgroup/domain?

How can I hide ALL desktop icons?

How do I upgrade my Windows 2000 installation to 128-bit encryption?

How can a user request a certificate via the web?

 

 

System Information

How can I tell the role of my NT machine?

How can I tell who has which files open on a machine?

How do I view all the applications/processes on the system?

Where can I get information about my machine?

How can I tell when NT was last started?

I have lost my NT Installation Key number, how can I find it out?

How can I get detailed system information from the command prompt?

How can I tell when NT was installed?

How can I tell if my NT installation is a 120 day evaluation or full?

How can I check what type of NT installation I have?

How can I tell if my NT installation is a “Not For Resale” installation?

Where is time zone information stored in NT/2000?

How can I tell which process has file X open?

How can I tell which DLL’s and API calls a program makes?

 

 

System Policy

How do System Policies work?

How do I modify a Policy?

How do I create my own Policy template?

Where can I get information on Profiles and Policies?

How can I control the Policy updates?

How can I implement locally based system policies?

 

 

TCP/IP

What is TCP/IP

How do I install TCP/IP

Is there a way to trace TCP/IP traffic using NT?

I do not have a network card, but would like to install TCP/IP.

I have installed TCP/IP, what steps should I use to verify the setup is correct?

How can I trace the route the TCP/IP packets take?

What is the subnet mask?

What diagnostic utilities are there for TCP/IP?

What is routing and how is it configured?

What is ARP?

My Network is not connected to the Internet, can I use any IP address?

How can I increase the time entries are kept in the ARP cache?

What other registry entries are there for TCP/IP?

How can I configure more than 6 IP addresses?

What are the common TCP ports?

How can I perform a migration to DHCP?

How do I assign multiple IP addresses to a single NIC?

How do I install the Network Monitor Utility?

How do I perform a network trace using NetMon?

Nothing shows up on my NETMON trace, why?

What is the NETMON agent?

How do I install the Network Monitor agent?

How do I monitor traffic for an agent?

How do I filter captured packets?

What is IPv6?

How will IPv6 addresses be written?

What is the IPv6 header format?

I am unable to install TCP/IP, why?

What switches can be used with PING?

How can I modify TCP retransmission timeout?

How can I disable media-sense for TCP/IP?

How can I check who owns subnet x?

How can I disable APIPA?

What is quality of server (QOS)?

How do I install QOS support in Windows 2000?

How do I configure QOS in Windows 2000?

How can I change the account used for the QOS service?

Is IP version 6 available for NT/Windows 2000/95/98?

What is IPSec?

How do I enable IPSec on a machine?

How do I define IPSec policy for a group policy object?

How do I enable IPSec traffic through a firewall?

How can I troubleshoot IPSec?

How can I manage/create IP Security policies?

How can I change the authentication method used for IPSec by a policy?

How can I install a certificate for use by IPSec?

 

 

Terminal Server

What is Terminal Server?

How do I install Windows NT 4.0 Terminal Server Edition?

How do I enable Terminal Server under Windows 2000?

How do I install Windows NT/95 based Terminal Server clients?

How do I install Windows for Workgroups based Terminal Server clients?

How do I connect to a Terminal Server from WFW/9x/NT/2000?

How do I close a Terminal Server connection?

How do I install applications for use with Terminal Server?

I can’t install Office 97 SR2 on Terminal Server.

How do I install Citrix Metaframe?

How do I create Citrix Metaframe client media?

How do I install the ICA DOS client?

How do install Backup Exec 7.X on TSE?

Can I use normal Service Packs on Windows NT Terminal Server Edition?

Can I use normal Hot fixes on Windows NT Terminal Server Edition?

I’ve reached 40 – 45 users and additional users can’t log onto Terminal Server?

How do I configure a CE based Terminal Server client?

I am having troubles getting the ICA DOS client to work.

Where can I download updates for MetaFrame?

What Service Packs are available for Windows NT Terminal Server Edition?

How do I send a message to a Terminal Server client?

How do I locate machines that are running Terminal Server?

How can I check if a user is logged on via Terminal Server?

Mouse movement is jerky in Terminal Server sessions.

Does MetaFrame run on Windows 2000?

How can I switch a session between window and full screen?

How can I remote control another terminal server session in Windows 2000?

What user environment extensions does the Windows 2000 terminal server component add?

How do I install Active Desktop on Terminal Server?

How do I enable client computers to logon to a Terminal Server?

 

 

Training

Where can I go for Training in Microsoft Products?

Where can I get more information about becoming a MCSE?

 

 

User Configuration

How do I create a captive account?

Where should Login Scripts go?

What should be in the Login Script?

Are there any utilities that help with login scripts?

Is there a way of performing operations depending on a users group membership?

How do I limit the disk space for a User?

What variables are available for use with a User?

Can I add user accounts from a database?

Is there a utility that shows who is currently logged on?

How can I change environment variables from the command line?

How can I hide drive x from users?

How do I make the shell start before the logon script finishes?

How can I find out which groups a user is in?

I can no longer see items in the common groups from the Start Menu.

How do I configure a user so they can change the system time?

How do I add a user?

How do I configure roaming profiles?

How can I configure each user to have a different screen resolution?

How can I create a list of all User Accounts?

How can I add a user from the command line?

How can I move users from one machine to another?

How can I configure a user to logoff at a certain time?

How can I grant User Rights from the command line?

How can I configure the system so all users share a common favourites folder?

How can I change the local Administrator passwords on machines without going to them?

How do I change my password?

How can I configure default settings for new users?

How can I tell which User has which SID?

How can I configure NT to not allow users to login if their mandatory profile is unavailable?

How do I automatically logoff clients after n minutes of inactivity?

How can I modify the size of icons on the desktop?

How can I disable Alt-Tab?

How can I configure the Alt-Tab display?

How can I edit the list of connections listed in Explorer when I map a connection?

How can I exclude the Temporary Internet Files folder from the user profile?

How can I stop the programs in my start-up folders running when I log on?

I can’t delete user x.

How can I stop users from being able to map/disconnect network drives?

How can I disable a whole group of users?

How can I remove a user from a group from the command prompt?

How can I remove the : from the time?

How can I rename a user from the command prompt?

Roaming profiles are not saved to the server.

I have made user shares hidden now connection fails.

How can I disable the Display control panel applet?

How can I disable elements of the Display control panel applet?

How do I debug roaming profiles?

How can I copy a user profile?

What are the differences between NT and 9x profiles?

When I log off all my home directory files are deleted.

How can I delete a local profile?

Copy profile locally problems.

Defining the profile area to use for a user.

How can I view which local groups on a trusting domain a user belongs to?

How do I limit user profile space?

I can’t logoff as my user profile quota is over the limit.

How do I grant user rights in Windows 2000? – Windows 2000 only

How can I logoff from the command prompt?

Where is User Manager for Domains in Windows 2000? – Windows 2000 only

How do I administer domain users in Windows 2000? – Windows 2000 only

How do I remove the Goto menu from Explorer?

How do I rename a global group?

Global groups over 20 characters create problems, why?

How can I disable the “Logon Using Dial-Up Networking” at logon time?

How can I stop a user closing the login script before it completes?

How can I configure a screen saver using a System Policy?

How can I tell at what time I logged on?

How can I stop certain folders being replicated as part of the user profile?

How can I generate a list of last user logon times for a domain?

How can I stop users creating persistent connections?

How can I map a drive/port for all new users on a machine without scripts etc?

I’m not given a warning if logged on using cached credentials in Windows 2000.

How do I manually delegate authority in Windows 2000?

How do I delegate authority in Windows 2000 using the Wizard?

 

 

Utilities

Where can I find the resource kit?

How do I run an application as a service?

How can I shutdown a computer remotely?

Where can I find a Unix su (substitute user) like utility?

I’m running NT on Alpha – Can I run INTEL programs?

What is TWEAKUI?

What else is good?

Do Windows 95 Powertoys work in NT?

Is there a X-terminal for NT?

Where is File Manager?

Where do I get Themes for NT?

Where can I get UNIX tools for NT?

How can I fix/replace/copy files on an NTFS partition from outside Windows NT?

What are the “Windows NT Support Tools”?

How do I load the RKILLSRV.EXE?

Where is File Manager in Windows 2000?

What is the Microsoft Management Console (MMC)?

How do I create a custom MMC configuration?

Where is X from NT 4.0 in Windows 2000?

How can I synchronize accounts between NT and Unix?

How can I add Open with Run Dialog to the context menu?

What is MSINFO32.EXE?

How can I uninstall IIS 4.0 and Option Pack 4?

How can I run a program as another user in Windows 2000?

Where is SCOPY in Windows 2000?

 

 

Various

What is SAMBA?

Why does the disk spanning function of PKZIP (command line version) not work under NT?

What virus killers are available for NT 4.0?

Does NT support the LS120 (adrive)?

Is NT year 2000 compliant?

What does x stand for?

What are the shortcuts available with the “Win” key?

How can I open a file with an application, other than the one it is associated with?

How do I change the icon associated with a short cut?

Is it possible to map a drive letter to a directory?

What keyboard shortcuts are available?

How do I schedule commands?

What are the long path names in the boot.ini file?

How can I execute a batch file using WINAT with Administrator Permissions?

I have 95 and NT installed, how can I configure the applications to run on both?

How can I stop and start services from the command line?

How do I delete a Service?

What is USER.DMP?

How in Notepad can I save a file without the .txt extension?

How can I move shares and their contents from one machine to another?

How do I create a shortcut on the desktop to a directory/disk?

How can I create a spare set of Windows95 disks?

What FAX software is available for Windows NT?

How can I delete files that are over x days old?

How can I speed up the performance of my OS/2 applications?

How can I install a font from the command line/batch file?

Information about Time Zones and daylight saving.

What are the ErrorControl, Start and Type values under the Services subkeys?

How do I type the Euro (‚ā¨) symbol?

What is the Melissa/Papa virus?

How can I show the context menu without the right mouse button?

How can I check if a Virus warning is real or a hoax?

What DO those smileys mean :-)?

What DO those acronyms mean in mail messages <NIFOC> <HHOJ>?

How do you edit the list of local and toll numbers for a dialing location?

What is ExploreZip.worm and what should I do?

How can I move a dialog/window using just the keyboard?

How can I extract files from a CAB file?

Where is USRMGR.EXE in NT Workstation?

What are the Event Viewer login codes?

What is Opportunist locking?

How can I convert a binary number to hexadecimal?

What switches can be used with explorer.exe?

Where are files in the Recycle bin actually stored?

My recycle bin is corrupt?

What is the bubbleboy virus?

What is the OEM version of NT/2000?

How can I check DLL versions on my system?

How can I talk to a serial (COM) port from the command line/batch file?

 

 

Windows 2000 (NT 5.0)

What is new in Windows 2000?

Where can I get more information on Windows 2000?

How do I get the Microsoft Windows 2000 Beta?

What is Windows 2000?

Getting the most out of NT 5.0 beta 2.

What hardware is needed to run Windows 2000?

Where is the Hardware Compatibility List for Windows 2000?

When does Windows 2000 need rebooting?

When will Windows 2000 be released?

Is build 2195 the final version of Windows 2000?

Where do I get updates for Windows 2000?

 

 

Windows 95/98 as a client

How do I communicate with a Windows 95 client?

How can I administer my domain from a Windows95 client?

How do I force a 95 machine to logon to a domain?

How do I enable Windows 9x machines to use Group policies?

How do I enable Load Balancing on a Windows 95 machine?

How can I stop a Windows 95 machine acting as a browse master or backup browser?

Some of the Windows 95/98 clients do not show up in Network Neighborhood.

How can I stop my Windows 9x clients entering a separate password when logging onto a domain?

How do I enable profiles on a Windows 9x machine?

How do I enable roaming profiles for Windows 9x machines?

Can Windows NT and Windows 9x share a roaming profile?

How do I install the Windows 9x Policy Editor?

How can I stop Windows 9x profiles being copied to the home directory?

How do I implement local system policies on Windows 9x?

I have lost my Windows 98 installation key, how can I find it?

How do I install the Windows 9x directory services client?

A user has forgotten the local Windows 9x password, how can it be reset?

How do I enable remote registry editing for Windows 9x clients?

How do I connect a Windows 95 to NT using a null modem cable?

My Windows 9x clients cannot see shares over 12 characters.

How do I enable NTLM 2.0 support in Windows 98?

How can I fool a program into thinking my Windows 9x installation is Windows 3.11?

 

 

Windows Scripting Host

What is the Windows Scripting Host?

Where can I get the Windows Scripting Host?

How do I install the Windows Scripting Host software?

Where can I get more information on WSH?

How do I create a new user in NT using ADSI?

How do I run a windows script from the command line?

How do I run a DOS command in WSH?

How do I rename a file using WSH?

 

 

WINS

What is WINS?

How does WINS work?

How do I set up WINS?

What is a WINS Proxy Agent?

How do I configure WINS static entries for a non-WINS client?

How do I configure WINS to work with DHCP?

How can I compress my WINS database?

WINS Automatic Backup does not run every 3 hours.

WINS Log files are created in incorrect locations.

WINS server is not being queried for entries in LMHOSTS after Service Pack 4.

My WINS clients have stopped registering/querying the WINS server.


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SERVER GLOSSARY

Server Glossary

 

access control

A security mechanism that determines which operations a user, group, service, or computer is authorized to perform on a computer or on a particular object, such as a file, printer, registry subkey, or directory service object.

 

access control entry (ACE)

An entry in an object’s discretionary access control list (DACL) that grants permissions to a user or group. An ACE is also an entry in an object’s system access control list (SACL) that specifies the security events to be audited for a user or group.

 

access control list (ACL)

A list of security protections that apply to an entire object, a set of the object’s properties, or an individual property of an object. There are two types of access control lists: discretionary and system.

 

access token

A data structure that contains the security identifier (SID) for a security principal, SIDs for the groups that the security principal belongs to, and a list of the security principal`s privileges (also called user rights) on the local computer.

 

active content

 

Interactive or animated content used on the Internet. Active content includes ActiveX controls and web browser add-ons

 

Active Directory

 

The Windows-based directory service. Active Directory stores information about objects on a network and makes this information available to users and network administrators. Active Directory gives network users access to permitted resources anywhere on the network using a single logon process. It provides network administrators with an intuitive, hierarchical view of the network and a single point of administration for all network objects.

 

 

 

 

Active Directory Application Mode (ADAM)

 

A stand-alone directory service that is designed specifically for use with directory-enabled applications. Active Directory Application Mode (ADAM) does not require or depend on Active Directory forests or domains. ADAM stores and replicates only application-related information. ADAM does not store or replicate network operating system (NOS)-related information.

 

 

Active Directory Application Mode (ADAM) instance

 

For Active Directory Application Mode (ADAM), a single copy of the ADAM directory service, along with its associated directory store, assigned Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) and Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) ports, and application event log. You can run multiple ADAM instances simultaneously on a single ADAM server.

 

Active Directory replication

 

The synchronization of Active Directory partition replicas between domain controllers. Replication automatically copies the changes that originate on a writable directory partition replica to all other domain controllers that hold the same directory partition replica. More specifically, a destination domain controller pulls these changes from the source domain controller.

 

Active Directory Service Interfaces (ADSI)

 

A directory service model and a set of Component Object Model (COM) interfaces. ADSI enables Windows applications and Active Directory clients to access several network directory services, including Active Directory. ADSI is supplied as a software development kit (SDK).

 

Active Directory Users and Computers

 

An administrative tool used by an administrator to perform day-to-day Active Directory administration tasks. The tasks that can be performed with this tool include creating, deleting, modifying, moving, and setting permissions on objects stored in the directory. Examples of objects in Active Directory are organizational units, users, contacts, groups, computers, printers, and shared file objects.

 

active partition

 

A partition from which a computer starts up. The active partition must be a primary partition on a basic disk. If you use Windows exclusively, the active partition can be the same as the system volume.

 

 

 

 

active volume

 

The volume from which the computer starts up. The active volume must be a simple volume on a dynamic disk. You cannot mark an existing dynamic volume as the active volume, but you can upgrade a basic disk containing the active partition to a dynamic disk. After the disk is upgraded to dynamic, the partition becomes a simple volume that is active.

 

ActiveX

 

A set of technologies that allows software components to interact with one another in a networked environment, regardless of the language in which the components were created.

 

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

 

In TCP/IP, a protocol that uses broadcast traffic on the local network to resolve a logically assigned Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) address to its physical hardware or media access control (MAC) layer address. In asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), ARP is used two different ways. For classical IPv4 over ATM (CLIP), ARP is used to resolve addresses to ATM hardware addresses. For ATM LAN emulation (LANE), ARP is used to resolve Ethernet/802.3 or Token Ring addresses to ATM hardware addresses.

 

application programming interface (API)

 

A set of routines that an application uses to request and carry out lower-level services performed by a computer`s operating system. These routines usually carry out maintenance tasks such as managing files and displaying information.

 

atomicity, consistency, isolation, durability (ACID)

 

The four essential properties of an electronic transaction. Atomicity is the ability to do or undo a transaction completely; consistency is the ability of a transaction to change a system from one consistent state to another consistent state; isolation is the ability for a transaction to occur independently of other transactions made at the same time; and durability is the ability of a transaction to persist, even during system failure.

 

Attribute

 

For files, information that indicates whether a file is read-only, hidden, ready for archiving (backing up), compressed, or encrypted, and whether the file contents should be indexed for fast file searching.

 

 

 

 

 

audit entry

 

Data that is recorded in the event log when specified system, application, and security-related events take place. Audit entries provide valuable data about system operations that can be used to identify system use and to diagnose system behavior.

 

Auditing

 

The process that tracks the activities of users by recording selected types of events in the security log of a server or a workstation.

 

authentication protocol

 

The protocol by which an entity on a network proves its identity to a remote entity. Typically, identity is proved with the use of a secret key, such as a password, or with a stronger key, such as the key on a smart card. Some authentication protocols also implement mechanisms to share keys between client and server to provide message integrity or privacy.

 

Backup

 

A duplicate copy of a program, a disk, or data, made either for archiving purposes or for safeguarding valuable files from loss in case the active copy is damaged or destroyed. Some application programs automatically make backup copies of data files, maintaining both the current version and the preceding version.

 

backup domain controller (BDC)

 

A domain controller running Windows NT Server 4.0 or earlier that receives a read-only copy of the directory database for the domain. The directory database contains all account and security policy information for the domain.

 

 

backup media pool

 

A logical collection of data-storage media that has been reserved for use by Microsoft Windows Backup. Backup uses Removable Storage to control access to specific media within a library.

 

backup set

 

A collection of files, folders, and other data that has been backed up and stored in a file or on one or more tapes

 

 

 

 

basic input/output system (BIOS)

 

The set of essential software routines that test computer hardware at startup, start the operating system, and support the transfer of information between hardware devices. The BIOS is stored in read-only memory (ROM) so that it can be run when the computer is turned on. Although critical to performance, the BIOS is usually invisible to computer users.

 

bridgehead server

 

In Active Directory replication, a single server in a site that is designated to perform site-to-site replication for a specific domain and transport. In a messaging system, a server that receives and forwards e-mail traffic at each end of a connection agreement, similar to the task a gateway performs.

 

Buffer

 

A region of random access memory (RAM) reserved for use with data that is temporarily held while waiting to be transferred between two locations, such as between an application`s data area and an input/output device.

 

Cache

 

A special memory subsystem in which frequently used data values are duplicated for quick access.

 

cache file

 

A file used by DNS servers and clients to store responses to DNS queries. For Windows DNS servers, the cache file is named Cache.dns by default.

 

Caching

 

The process of temporarily storing recently accessed information in a special memory subsystem for quicker access.

 

caching resolver

 

A program that extracts information from DNS servers in response to client requests.

 

caching-only server

 

A DNS sever that does not host any DNS zones but that performs name resolution and stores the results in its cache.

 

 

 

cascading hubs

 

A network configuration in which hubs are connected to other hubs.

 

cluster

In data storage, the smallest amount of disk space that can be allocated to hold a file. All file systems used by Windows organize hard disks based on clusters, which consist of one or more contiguous sectors. The smaller the cluster size, the more efficiently a disk stores information. If no cluster size is specified during formatting, Windows picks defaults based on the size of the volume. These defaults are selected to reduce the amount of space that is lost and the amount of fragmentation on the volume. Also called an allocation unit. In computer networking, a group of independent computers that work together to provide a common set of services and present a single-system image to clients. The use of a cluster enhances the availability of the services and the scalability and manageability of the operating system that provides the services.

 

cluster adapter

The adapter that, when using multiple network adapters in each host of a Network Load Balancing cluster, handles the network traffic for cluster operations (the traffic for all hosts in the cluster). This adapter is programmed with the host`s cluster IP address.

 

Cluster Administrator

An application that configures a cluster and its nodes, groups, and resources. Cluster Administrator can run on any member of the trusted domain regardless of whether the computer is a cluster node.

 

Cluster Administrator extension

A software component that implements the Cluster Administrator extension application programming interface (API) for allowing Cluster Administrator to configure a new resource type.

 

Cluster API

A collection of functions that are implemented by the cluster software and used by a cluster-aware client or server application, a cluster management application, or a Resource DLL. The Cluster API is used to manage the cluster, cluster objects, and the cluster database.

 

cluster full Internet name

A full Internet name for the Network Load Balancing cluster (for example, cluster.microsoft.com). This name is used for the cluster as a whole and should be the same for all hosts in the cluster.

 

cluster IP address

The Network Load Balancing cluster`s IP address in standard Internet dotted notation (for example, w.x.y.z). The address is a virtual IP address used to address the cluster as a whole, and it should be the IP address that maps to the full Internet name that you specify for the cluster. In a Network Load Balancing cluster, this address must be set identically for all hosts in the cluster.

 

cluster log

An optionally enabled trace record of Cluster service events on a node. Not synonymous with quorum log.

 

cluster network address

The network (media access control) address for the network adapter that is to be used for handling client-to-cluster traffic in a Network Load Balancing cluster.

 

Cluster service

The essential software component that controls all aspects of server cluster operation and manages the cluster database. Each node in a server cluster runs one instance of the Cluster service.

 

cluster storage

Storage where one or more attached disks hold data used either by server applications running on the cluster or by applications for managing the cluster. Each disk on the cluster storage is owned by only one node of the cluster. The ownership of disks moves from one node to another when the disk group fails over or moves to the other node.

 

Cluster.exe

An alternative to using Cluster Administrator to administer clusters from the command prompt. You can also call Cluster.exe from command scripts to automate many cluster administration tasks.

 

cluster-aware application

An application that can run on a cluster node and that can be managed as a cluster resource. Cluster-aware applications use the Cluster API to receive status and notification information from the server cluster.

 

cluster-unaware application

An application that can run on a cluster node and be managed as a cluster resource but that does not support the Cluster API.

 

Computer Management

A component you can use to view and control many aspects of the computer configuration. Computer Management combines several administration utilities into a single console tree, providing easy access to a local or remote computer`s administrative properties and tools.

 

console

A framework for hosting administrative tools, such as Microsoft Management Console (MMC). A console is defined by the items in its console tree, which might include folders or other containers, World Wide Web pages, and other administrative items. A console has windows that can provide views of the console tree and the administrative properties, services, and events that are acted on by the items in the console tree.

 

CPU Time

In Task Manager, the total processor time, in seconds, used by a process since it started.

 

CPU Usage

In Task Manager, the percentage of time that a process used the CPU since the last update. This percentage is displayed in Task Manager on the Processes tab, under the CPU column heading.

 

crash consistency

A feature of shadow copy backups that ensures all files are backed up, regardless of their state.

 

Crash Dump Type

Specifies the file format Dr. Watson will use to store the information. The Full format contains the entire memory space of the program, as well as the program image itself, the handle table, and other information that will be useful to the debugger. The Mini format may include the full memory and handle table, or it may simply contain information about a single thread. The Windows NT 4.0-compatible Full format provides you with the opportunity to use older tools to analyze the dump file. Crash Dump Type is only available when you have selected the Create Crash Dump File check box.

 

dedicated IP address

The IP address of a Network Load Balancing host used for network traffic that is not associated with the Network Load Balancing cluster (for example, Telnet access to a specific host within the cluster). This IP address is used to individually address each host in the cluster and therefore should be unique for each host.

 

DHCP server

A computer running the Microsoft DHCP service that offers dynamic configuration of IP addresses and related information to DHCP-enabled clients.

 

DHCP service

A service that enables a computer to function as a DHCP server and configure DHCP-enabled clients on a network. DHCP runs on a server, enabling the automatic, centralized management of IP addresses and other TCP/IP configuration settings for network clients.

 

DHCP service resource

A resource type that provides DHCP services from a cluster.

 

DHCP/BOOTP Relay Agent

The agent program or component responsible for relaying Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and bootstrap protocol (BOOTP) broadcast messages between a DHCP server and a client across an Internet Protocol (IP) router. A DHCP relay agent supports DHCP/BOOTP message relay as defined in RFCs 1541 and 2131. The DHCP Relay Agent routing protocol component is managed using the Routing and Remote Access snap-in.

 

domain

In Active Directory, a collection of computer, user, and group objects defined by the administrator. These objects share a common directory database, security policies, and security relationships with other domains. In DNS, any tree or subtree within the DNS namespace. Although the names for DNS domains often correspond to Active Directory domains, DNS domains should not be confused with Active Directory domains.

 

domain administrator

A person who is a member of the Domain Admins group. Domain administrators can create, delete, and manage all objects that reside within the domain in which they are administrators. They can also assign and reset passwords and delegate administrative authority for network resources to other trusted users.

 

domain controller

In an Active Directory forest, a server that contains a writable copy of the Active Directory database, participates in Active Directory replication, and controls access to network resources. Administrators can manage user accounts, network access, shared resources, site topology, and other directory objects from any domain controller in the forest.

 

domain controller locator (Locator)

An algorithm running in the context of the Net Logon service that enables a client to locate a domain controller. Locator can find domain controllers by using DNS or network basic input/output system (NetBIOS) names. The DNS service (SRV) resource records registered by Locator on behalf of domain controllers are also known as domain controller locator (Locator) resource records.

 

domain DFS

An implementation of Distributed File System (DFS) in which DFS topological information is stored in Active Directory. Because this information is made available on multiple domain controllers in the domain, domain DFS provides fault tolerance for any distributed file system in the domain.

 

domain functionality

The functional level of an Active Directory domain that has one or more domain controllers running Windows Server 2003. The functional level of a domain can be raised to enable new Active Directory features that will apply to that domain only. There are four domain functional levels: Windows 2000 mixed, Windows 2000 native, Windows Server 2003 interim, and Windows Server 2003. The default domain functional level is Windows 2000 mixed. When the domain functional level is raised to Windows 2000 native, Windows Server 2003 interim, or Windows Server 2003, advanced domain-wide Active Directory features are available.

 

domain hierarchy

The parent/child tree structure of domains.

 

domain local group

A security or distribution group that can contain universal groups, global groups, other domain local groups from its own domain, and accounts from any domain in the forest. Domain local security groups can be granted rights and permissions on resources that reside only in the same domain where the domain local group is located.

 

 

domain name

The name given by an administrator to a collection of networked computers that share a common directory. Part of the DNS naming structure, domain names consist of a sequence of name labels separated by periods.

 

Domain Name System (DNS)

A hierarchical, distributed database that contains mappings of DNS domain names to various types of data, such as IP addresses. DNS enables the location of computers and services by user-friendly names, and it also enables the discovery of other information stored in the database.

 

domain namespace

The database structure used by DNS.

 

domain naming master

A domain controller that holds the domain naming operations master role in Active Directory. The domain naming master controls the addition or removal of domains in the forest. At any time, the domain naming master role can be assigned to only one domain controller in the forest.

 

domain of origin

The parent DNS domain name that is used to root either a zone or a resource record within a zone. This name is joined to the end of unqualified or relative domain names to form a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) within the zone. In DNS Manager, the domain of origin will correspond to the zone name as it appears in the Add Zone Wizard or the name that appears in the Parent domain name field for any resource records created within the zone.

 

domain root

A DFS namespace, for which the configuration information is stored in Active Directory. The path to access the root or a link starts with the host domain name. A domain root can have multiple root targets, which offer fault tolerance and load sharing at the root level.

 

domain suffix

For DNS, an optional parent domain name that can be appended to the end of a relative domain name used in a name query or host lookup. The domain suffix can be used to complete an alternate fully qualified DNS domain name to be searched when the first attempt to query a name fails.

 

domain tree

In DNS, the inverted hierarchical tree structure that is used to index domain names. Domain trees are similar in purpose and concept to the directory trees used by computer filing systems for disk storage. For example, when numerous files are stored on disk, directories can be used to organize the files into logical collections. When a domain tree has one or more branches, each branch can organize domain names used in the namespace into logical collections. In Active Directory, a hierarchical structure of one or more domains, connected by transitive, bidirectional trusts, that forms a contiguous namespace. Multiple domain trees can belong to the same forest.

 

 

Encrypting File System (EFS)

A feature in this version of Windows that enables users to encrypt files and folders on an NTFS volume disk to keep them safe from access by intruders.

 

event

Any significant occurrence in the system or an application that requires users to be notified or an entry to be added to a log.

 

Event Log service

A service that records events in the system, security, and application logs. The Event Log service is located in Event Viewer.

 

event logging

The process of recording an audit entry in the audit trail whenever certain events occur, such as services starting and stopping or users logging on and off and accessing resources.

 

Event Viewer

A component you can use to view and manage event logs, gather information about hardware and software problems, and monitor security events. Event Viewer maintains logs about program, security, and system events.

 

everyone category

In the Macintosh environment, one of the user categories to which you assign permissions for a folder. Permissions granted to everyone apply to all users who use the server, including guests.

 

exclusion range

A small range of one or more IP addresses within a DHCP scope excluded from the DHCP service. Exclusion ranges ensure that these scope addresses will never be offered to clients by the DHCP server.

expanded memory

Type of memory that can be added to IBM personal computers. The use of expanded memory is defined by the Expanded Memory Specification (EMS), which supports memory boards containing RAM that can be enabled or disabled by software.

 

expansion slot

A socket in a computer, designed to hold expansion boards and connect them to the system bus.

 

expire interval

For DNS, the number of seconds that DNS servers operating as secondary masters for a zone will use to determine if zone data should be expired when the zone is not refreshed and renewed.

 

explicit permissions

Object permissions that are defined when the object is created, specifically assigned, or changed by the owner of the object.

 

express message

For Message Queuing, a message that uses fewer resources and is faster than a recoverable message. However, because express messages are mapped to memory, they are lost if the computer storing them fails.

 

extended memory

Memory beyond one megabyte in 80286, 80386, 80486, and Pentium computers.

 

extended partition

A type of partition that you can create only on basic master boot record (MBR) disks. Extended partitions are useful if you want to create more than four volumes on a basic MBR disk. Unlike primary partitions, you do not format an extended partition with a file system and then assign a drive letter to it. Instead, you create one or more logical drives within the extended partition. After you create a logical drive, you format it and assign it a drive letter. An MBR disk can have up to four primary partitions or three primary partitions, one extended partition, and multiple logical drives

 

failback

The process of moving resources, either individually or in a group, back to their preferred node after the node has failed and come back online.

 

failback policy

Parameters that an administrator can set using Cluster Administrator that affect failback operations.

 

failed

A state that applies to a resource or a node in a cluster. A resource or a node is placed in the failed state after an unsuccessful attempt has been made to bring it online.

 

failover

In server clusters, the process of taking resource groups offline on one node and bringing them online on another node. When failover occurs, all resources within a resource group fail over in a predefined order; resources that depend on other resources are taken offline before, and are brought back online after, the resources on which they depend.

 

failover policy

Parameters that an administrator can set using Cluster Administrator that affect failover operations.

 

FAT

 

FAT32

A system used to store files on a computer drive. FAT32 is based on the file allocation table (FAT) file system, but it uses 32-bit values for storing files instead of the 16-bit values used by the original FAT file system. FAT32 offers more efficient drive space allocation by creating smaller clusters than FAT and supports volumes of up to 2 terabytes (TB) of size.

 

 

fault tolerance

The ability of computer hardware or software to ensure data integrity when hardware failures occur. Fault-tolerant features appear in many server operating systems and include mirrored volumes, RAID-5 volumes, and server clusters.

 

file allocation table (FAT)

A file system used by MS‑DOS and other Windows operating systems to organize and manage files. The file allocation table is a data structure that Windows creates when you format a volume by using FAT or FAT32 file systems. Windows stores information about each file in the file allocation table so that it can retrieve the file later.

 

file control block (FCB)

A small block of memory temporarily assigned by a computer’s operating system to hold information about a file that has been opened for use. An FCB typically contains such information as the file’s identification, its location on disk, and a pointer that marks the user’s current (or last) position in the file.

 

file creator

A four-character sequence that identifies which program was used to create a file. With Services for Macintosh, you can associate file name extensions with file creators and file types to specify which program starts automatically when you open a file with a particular extension.

 

file encryption key (FEK)

A pseudo-random cryptographic key that Encrypting File System (EFS) uses to encrypt a file. The FEK is encrypted by the public key of the user performing the encryption, and it is typically different for each encrypted file.

 

file fork

One of two subfiles of a Macintosh file. When Macintosh files are stored on a computer running Services for Macintosh, each fork is stored as a separate file. Each fork can be independently opened by Macintosh users.

 

file group

A File Server Resource Manager option that is used to define a namespace for a file screen, file screen exception, or storage report. It consists of a set of file name patterns, which in turn determine whether files are included or excluded from a group.

 

File Replication service (FRS)

A service that provides multimaster file replication for designated directory trees between designated servers running Windows Server 2003. The designated directory trees must be on disk partitions formatted with the version of NTFS used with the Windows Server 2003 family. FRS is used by Distributed File System (DFS) to automatically synchronize content between assigned replicas and by Active Directory to automatically synchronize content of the system volume information across domain controllers.

 

file screen

A File Server Resource Manager option that is used to block certain files from being saved on a volume or in a folder tree. A file screen is applied at the folder level and affects all folders and subfolders in the designated path.

 

File Server for Macintosh

A service that allows users of Macintosh computers to store, access, and share files on servers running Services for Macintosh. Also called MacFile.

 

File Server Resource Manager

A suite of tools that allows administrators to understand, control, and manage the quantity and type of data stored on their servers.

 

file share

In a server cluster, any folder that has an associated File Share resource and is managed by the Cluster service. The file share can fail over from one node to another, but to the end user, the folder looks like a regular folder that remains in one location. Multiple users can access a file share.

 

File Share resource

A file share accessible by a network path that is supported as a cluster resource by a Resource DLL.

 

file system

In an operating system, the overall structure in which files are named, stored, and organized. NTFS, FAT, and FAT32 are types of file systems.

 

file system cache

An area of physical memory that holds frequently used pages. It allows applications and services to locate pages rapidly and reduces disk activity.

 

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

A member of the TCP/IP suite of protocols, used to copy files between two computers on the Internet. Both computers must support their respective FTP roles: one must be an FTP client and the other an FTP server.

 

file type

In the Windows environment, a designation of the operational or structural characteristics of a file. The file type identifies the program, such as Microsoft Word, that is used to open the file. File types are associated with a file name extension. For example, files that have the .txt or .log extension are of the Text Document type and can be opened using any text editor. In the Macintosh environment, a four-character sequence that identifies the type of a Macintosh file. The Macintosh Finder uses the file type and file creator to determine the appropriate desktop icon for that file.

 

filter

For Indexing Service, software that extracts content and property values from a document to index them. For Internet Protocol security (IPSec), a specification of Internet Protocol (IP) traffic that provides the ability to trigger security negotiations for a communication based on the source, destination, and type of IP traffic. For Internet Information Services (IIS), a feature of Internet Server Application Programming Interface (ISAPI) that allows preprocessing of requests and postprocessing of responses, permitting site-specific handling of Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) requests and responses. In IP and Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) packet filtering, a definition in a series of definitions that indicates to the router the type of traffic allowed or disallowed on each interface.

 

firmware

Software routines and low-level input/output instructions stored in read-only memory (ROM). Unlike random-access memory (RAM), read-only memory stays intact even in the absence of electrical power.

 

forest

One or more Active Directory domains that share the same class and attribute definitions (schema), site and replication information (configuration), and forest-wide search capabilities (global catalog). Domains in the same forest are linked with two-way, transitive trust relationships.

 

forest functionality

The functional level of an Active Directory forest that has one or more domain controllers running Windows Server 2003. The functional level of a forest can be raised to enable new Active Directory features that will apply to every domain in the forest. There are three forest functional levels: Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003 interim, and Windows Server 2003. The default forest functional level is Windows 2000. When the forest functional level is raised to Windows Server 2003 interim or Windows Server 2003, advanced forest-wide Active Directory features are available.

 

forest root domain

The first domain created in a new forest. The forest-wide administrative groups, Enterprise Admins and Schema Admins, are located in this domain. As a best practice, new domains are created as children of the forest root domain.

 

forest trust

A trust between two Windows Server 2003 forests that forms trust relationships between every domain in both forests. A forest trust can be created only between the forest root domains in each forest. Forest trusts are transitive, and they can be one-way or two-way. An administrator must manually establish a forest trust, unlike an automatically established trust, such as a parent-child trust.

 

group

A collection of users, computers, contacts, and other groups. Groups can be used as security or as e-mail distribution collections. Distribution groups are used only for e-mail. Security groups are used both to grant access to resources and as e-mail distribution lists.

 

group account

A collection of user accounts. By making a user account a member of a group, you give the related user all the rights and permissions granted to the group.

 

group identifier (GID)

An identifier in UNIX that associates a user with a group of other users that have something in common. A user can be a member of one or more groups.

 

group memberships

The groups to which a user account belongs. Permissions and rights granted to a group are also provided to its members. In most cases, the actions a user can perform in Windows are determined by the group memberships of the user account to which the user is logged on.

 

Group Policy

The infrastructure within Active Directory directory service that enables directory-based change and configuration management of user and computer settings, including security and user data. You use Group Policy to define configurations for groups of users and computers. With Group Policy, you can specify policy settings for registry-based policies, security, software installation, scripts, folder redirection, remote installation services, and Internet Explorer maintenance. The Group Policy settings that you create are contained in a Group Policy object (GPO). By associating a GPO with selected Active Directory system containers&mdash;sites, domains, and organizational units&mdash;you can apply the GPO`s policy settings to the users and computers in those Active Directory containers. To create an individual GPO, use the Group Policy Object Editor. To manage Group Policy objects across an enterprise, you can use the Group Policy Management console.

 

Group Policy Management console (GPMC)

An optional tool that unifies and centralizes administration of Group Policy.

 

Group Policy object (GPO)

A collection of Group Policy settings. GPOs are essentially the documents created by the Group Policy Object Editor. GPOs are stored at the domain level, and they affect users and computers that are contained in sites, domains, and organizational units. In addition, each computer has exactly one group of policy settings stored locally, called the local Group Policy object.

 

Group Policy Object Editor

The Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in that is used to edit Group Policy objects (GPOs).

 

Group Policy object link

A method of applying settings in a Group Policy object (GPO) to an Active Directory container (site, domain, or organizational unit). Linking a GPO applies the settings of that GPO to the users and computers in a site, domain, or organizational unit and, by default, to the users and computers in all child containers.

 

 

 

Group Policy Security Settings

The subtrees of the Group Policy Object Editor that allow a security administrator to manually configure security levels assigned to a Group Policy object (GPO) or local computer policy.

 

heartbeat

A signal emitted at regular intervals by software to indicate that it is still running.

 

host

Any device on a TCP/IP network that has an Internet Protocol (IP) address. Examples of hosts include servers, workstations, network-interface print devices, and routers. Sometimes used to refer to a specific network computer that is running a service used by network or remote clients. For Network Load Balancing, a cluster consists of multiple hosts connected over a local area network (LAN).

 

host domain

The domain in which a DFS namespace has been configured.

 

host ID

The portion of the IP address that identifies a computer within a particular network ID.

 

host name

The DNS name of a device on a network. These names are used to locate computers on the network. To find another computer, its host name must either appear in the Hosts file or be known by a DNS server. For most Windows-based computers, the host name and the computer name are the same.

 

host priority

For Network Load Balancing, a host`s precedence for handling default network traffic for TCP and UDP ports. It is used if a host within the cluster goes offline, and it determines which host within the cluster will assume responsibility for the traffic previously handled by the offline host.

 

host server

The server on which a root target is located.

 

Hosts file

A local text file in the same format as the 4.3 Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) UNIX /etc/hosts file. This file maps host names to IP addresses, and it is stored in the \%Systemroot%\System32\Drivers\Etc folder.

 

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)

The primary access protocol for Active Directory. LDAP is an industry-standard protocol, established by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), that allows users to query and update information in a directory service. Active Directory supports both LDAP version 2 and LDAP version 3.

 

 

majority node set server cluster

A cluster configuration that has two or more nodes and that is configured so that the nodes may or may not be attached to one or more cluster storage devices. The cluster configuration data is stored on multiple disks across the cluster, and the Cluster service makes sure that this data is kept consistent across the different disks. There are advantages and limitations for each cluster configuration (single node server cluster, single quorum device server cluster, and majority node set server cluster).

 

malicious program

Any program that is created to do intentional harm to or compromise the security of a computer. Examples of malicious programs include trojan horses and computer viruses.

 

malicious user

A person who has legitimate access to a system and poses a security threat to it, such as someone who tries to elevate their user rights to gain access to unauthorized data.

 

managed volume

A local NTFS file system 5.0 volume whose disk space is managed by Remote Storage. Remote Storage frees up disk space by automatically moving infrequently accessed files to a remote storage device.

 

Management and Monitoring Tools

Software components that include utilities for network management and monitoring, along with services that support client dialing and the updating of client phone books. Also included is the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).

 

management information base (MIB)

A set of objects that represent various types of information about a device, used by Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) to manage the device. Because different network management services are used for different types of devices and protocols, each service has its own set of objects.

 

management system

A network-enabled host running Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) management software. This software requests information from SNMP agents. Also called a management console.

 

mandatory user profile

A user profile that is not updated when the user logs off. It is downloaded to the user’s desktop each time the user logs on, and it is created by an administrator and assigned to one or more users to create consistent or job-specific user profiles. Only members of the Administrators group can change profiles.

 

 

 

 

man-in-the-middle attack

A security attack in which an attacker intercepts and possibly modifies data that is transmitted between two users. The attacker pretends to be the other person to each user. In a successful man-in-the-middle attack, the users are unaware that there is an attacker between them, intercepting and modifying their data. Also referred to as a bucket brigade attack.

 

master boot record (MBR)

The first sector on a hard disk, which begins the process of starting the computer. The MBR contains the partition table for the disk and a small amount of executable code called the master boot code.

 

master file table (MFT)

An NTFS system file on NTFS-formatted volumes that contains information about each file and folder on the volume. The MFT is the first file on an NTFS volume.

master server

An authoritative DNS server for a zone. Master servers can vary and are one of two types (either primary or secondary masters), depending on how the server obtains its zone data.

 

master server

In Network Information Service (NIS), a server that provides periodic updates of NIS maps to subordinate servers. A Windows-based master server running Server for NIS can push periodic updates to both UNIX-based and Windows-based subordinate servers. Master servers running Server for NIS update Server for NIS subordinate servers through an Active Directory database shared with the subordinate server.

 

mounted drive

A drive attached to an empty folder on an NTFS volume. Mounted drives function the same as any other drive, but are assigned a label or name instead of a drive letter. The mounted drive`s name is resolved to a full file system path instead of just a drive letter. Members of the Administrators group can use Disk Management to create mounted drives or reassign drive letters.

 

multicast server (MCS)

A service that manages zero or more multicast groups and distributes multicast data sent to it by clients of those multicast groups through point-to-multipoint connections.

 

multiple boot

A computer configuration that runs two or more operating systems.

 

object

An entity, such as a file, folder, shared folder, printer, or Active Directory object, described by a distinct, named set of attributes. For example, the attributes of a File object include its name, location, and size; the attributes of an Active Directory User object might include the user’s first name, last name, and e-mail address. For OLE and ActiveX, an object can also be any piece of information that can be linked to, or embedded into, another object.

 

 

object access event category

In auditing, a group of events that are logged when an object, such as a file or folder, is accessed by means of an action for which auditing has been enabled. For example, object access events might be logged when a file is opened, modified, or deleted.

 

object class

A distinct, named set of attributes that represents a specific type of entity stored in the directory, such as users, printers, or applications. The attributes include data describing the thing that is identified by the directory object. Attributes of a user might include the user`s first name, last name, and e-mail address.

 

object identifier

A number that identifies an object class or attribute. Object identifiers (OIDs) are organized into an industry-wide global hierarchy. An object identifier is represented as a dotted decimal string, such as 1.2.3.4, with each dot representing a new branch in the hierarchy. National registration authorities issue root object identifiers to individuals or organizations, who manage the hierarchy below their root object identifier.

 

ODBC

See other term: Open Database Connectivity (ODBC)   

 

offline

A state that marks a component in a cluster as unavailable. A node in an offline state is either inactive or not running. Resources and groups also have an offline state.

 

offline mode

For Message Queuing, a condition in which a computer that belongs to a domain is temporarily unable to communicate with a domain controller. This occurs when the computer itself is offline, all domain controllers in the site are offline, or when an attempt is made to access a remote computer and the remote computer is temporarily unable to query a domain controller for authentication.

 

OLE

A way to transfer and share information between applications by pasting information created in one application into a document created in another application, such as a spreadsheet or word processing file.

 

on-disk catalog

Information stored on a local disk drive. The on-disk catalog contains a list of files and folders that have been backed up in a backup set.

 

one-way trust

A trust relationship between two domains in which only one of the two domains trusts the other domain. For example, domain A trusts domain B, and domain B does not trust domain A. One-way trusts are often used to enable authenticated access to resource domains.

 

online

A state that marks a component in a cluster as available. When a node is online, it is an active member of the cluster and can own and run groups as well as honor cluster database updates, contribute votes to the quorum algorithm, and maintain heartbeats. Resources and groups also have an online state.

 

on-media catalog

Information stored on backup storage media. The on-media catalog contains a list of files and folders that have been backed up in a backup set.

 

Open Database Connectivity (ODBC)

An application programming interface (API) that enables database applications to access data from a variety of existing data sources.

 

organizational unit

An Active Directory container object used within domains. An organizational unit is a logical container into which users, groups, computers, and other organizational units are placed. It can contain objects only from its parent domain. An organizational unit is the smallest scope to which a Group Policy object (GPO) can be linked, or over which administrative authority can be delegated.

 

parent domain

For DNS and Active Directory, domains that are located in the namespace tree directly above other derivative domain names (child domains). For example, microsoft.com would be the parent domain for example.microsoft.com, a child domain.

 

parent object

An object in which another object resides. For example, a folder is a parent object in which a file, or child object, resides. An object can be both a parent and a child object. For example, a subfolder that contains files is both the child of the parent folder and the parent folder of the files.

 

parent-child trust

A trust that is automatically established when a new domain (the child domain) is added, or becomes subordinate, to an existing domain (the parent domain). Parent-child trusts are transitive and two-way.

 

parity

A calculated value that is used to reconstruct data after a failure. RAID-5 volumes stripe data and parity intermittently across a set of disks. When a disk fails, some server operating systems use the parity information together with the data on good disks to recreate the data on the failed disk.

 

partition

A portion of a physical disk that functions as though it were a physically separate disk. After you create a partition, you must format it and assign it a drive letter before you can store data on it. On basic disks, partitions are known as basic volumes, which include primary partitions and logical drives. On dynamic disks, partitions are known as dynamic volumes, which include simple, striped, spanned, mirrored, and RAID-5 volumes.

 

partition boot sector

A portion of a hard disk partition that contains information about the disk`s file system and a short machine language program that loads the Windows operating system.

 

performance alert

A feature that detects when a predefined counter value rises above or falls below the configured threshold and notifies a user by means of the Messenger service.

 

performance counter

In System Monitor, a data item that is associated with a performance object. For each counter selected, System Monitor presents a value corresponding to a particular aspect of the performance that is defined for the performance object.

 

performance object

In System Monitor, a logical collection of counters that is associated with a resource or service that can be monitored.

 

performance object instance

In System Monitor, a term used to distinguish between multiple performance objects of the same type on a computer.

 

permission

A rule associated with an object to regulate which users can gain access to the object and in what manner. Permissions are assigned or denied by the object`s owner.

 

Primary disk

The hard disk drive that contains the system and boot partitions used to start Windows.

 

primary domain controller (PDC)

In a Windows NT domain, a domain controller running Windows NT Server 4.0 or earlier that authenticates domain logon attempts and updates user, computer, and group accounts in a domain. The PDC contains the master read-write copy of the directory database for the domain. A domain has only one PDC. In a Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 domain, the PDC emulator master supports compatibility with client computers that are not running Windows 2000 or Windows XP Professional.

 

primary group

The group with which a Macintosh user usually shares documents stored on a server. You specify a user`s primary group in the user`s account. When a user creates a folder on the server, the user`s primary group is set by default as the folder`s associated group.

 

 

primary master

An authoritative DNS server for a zone that can be used as a point of update for the zone. Only primary masters have the ability to be updated directly to process zone updates, which include adding, removing, or modifying resource records that are stored as zone data. Primary masters are also used as the first sources for replicating the zone to other DNS servers.

 

primary partition

A type of partition that you can create on basic disks. A primary partition is a portion of a physical disk that functions as though it were a physically separate disk. On basic master boot record (MBR) disks, you can create up to four primary partitions on a basic disk, or three primary partitions and an extended partition with multiple logical drives. On basic GUID partition table (GPT) disks, you can create up to 128 primary partitions. Also known as a volume.

 

primary zone

A copy of the zone that is administered locally.

 

print job

The source code that contains both the data to be printed and the commands for print. Print jobs are classified into data types based on what modifications, if any, the spooler must make to the job for it to print correctly.

 

print processor

The component that, working in conjunction with the printer driver, receives and alters print jobs, as necessary, according to their data type to ensure that the jobs print correctly.

 

print server

A computer that is dedicated to managing the printers on a network. The print server can be any computer on the network.

 

Print Server for Macintosh

A service that enables Macintosh clients to send and spool documents to printers attached to a computer running Windows NT Server; Windows 2000 Server; or an operating system in the Windows Server 2003 family, excluding 64-bit editions, and that enables clients to send documents to printers anywhere on an AppleTalk network. Also known as MacPrint.

 

print spooler

Software that accepts a document sent to a printer and then stores it on disk or in memory until the printer is ready for it.

 

Print Spooler resource

Printer queues providing access to a network printer connected to the network by an IP address rather than by an individual name. Print spoolers are supported as cluster resources by a Resource DLL.

 

 

printer

A device that puts text or images on paper or other print media. Examples are laser printers or dot-matrix printers.

 

Printer Control Language (PCL)

The page-description language (PDL) developed by Hewlett-Packard for their laser and inkjet printers. Because of the widespread use of laser printers, this command language has become a standard in many printers.

 

printer driver

A program designed to allow other programs to work with a particular printer without concerning themselves with the specifics of the printer`s hardware and internal language. By using printer drivers that handle the subtleties of each printer, programs can communicate properly with a variety of printers.

 

RAID-5 volume

A fault-tolerant volume with data and parity striped intermittently across three or more physical disks. Parity is a calculated value that is used to reconstruct data after a failure. If a portion of a physical disk fails, Windows recreates the data that was on the failed portion from the remaining data and parity. You can create RAID-5 volumes only on dynamic disks on computers running the Windows 2000 Server or Windows Server 2003 families of operating systems. You cannot mirror or extend RAID-5 volumes. In Windows NT 4.0, a RAID-5 volume was known as a striped set with parity.

 

realm

A set of security principles, in a non-Windows networked environment, that are subject to Kerberos authentication.

 

realm name

An identifying prefix or suffix appended to a user name to enable appropriate routing and authentication during a remote logon process.

 

realm trust

A trust between non-Windows Kerberos V5 realms, such as a UNIX realm, and Active Directory domains. Realm trusts can be transitive, nontransitive, one-way, or two-way.

 

Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID)

A method used to standardize and categorize fault-tolerant disk systems. RAID levels provide various mixes of performance, reliability, and cost. Some servers provide three of the RAID levels: Level 0 (striping), Level 1 (mirroring), and Level 5 (RAID-5).

 

replica

In Active Directory replication, one instance of a logical Active Directory partition that is synchronized by means of replication between domain controllers that hold copies of the same directory partition. &lt;i&gt;Replica&lt;/i&gt; can also refer to an instance of an object or attribute in a distributed directory. In the File Replication service (FRS), a computer that has been included in the configuration of a specific replica set.

 

replica set

One or more shared folders that participates in replication.

 

replicated folder

A folder that is kept synchronized on members of a replication group. A replicated folder has an associated local path on each member.

 

replication

The process of copying updated data from a data store or file system on a source computer to a matching data store or file system on one or more destination computers to synchronize the data.

 

replication group

A set of servers that participates in the replication of one or more replicated folders.

 

replication latency

In Active Directory replication, the delay between the time an update is applied to a given replica of a directory partition and the time it is applied to some other replica of the same directory partition. A server receives changes no sooner than either it is notified of a change from its neighbor in the same site or its periodic replication timer expires. Sometimes referred to as propagation delay.

 

replication partner

A domain controller that acts as a replication source for a given domain controller. The Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC) determines which servers are best suited to replicate with each other, and it generates the list of domain controllers that are candidates for replication partners from the list of domain controllers in the site on the basis of connectivity, history of successful replication, and matching of full and partial replicas. A domain controller has some number of direct replication partners with which it replicates for a given directory partition. The other domain controllers in the site replicate transitively with this domain controller.

 

replication policy

Rules that define how and when replication is performed.

 

replication topology

In Active Directory replication, the set of physical connections that domain controllers use to replicate directory updates among domain controllers within sites and between sites. In the File Replication service (FRS), the interconnections between replica set members. These interconnections determine the path that data takes as it replicates to all replica set members.

 

scalability

A measure of how well a computer, service, or application can grow to meet increasing performance demands. For server clusters, the ability to incrementally add one or more systems to an existing cluster when the overall load of the cluster exceeds its capabilities

schema

The set of definitions for the universe of objects that can be stored in a directory. For each object class, the schema defines which attributes an instance of the class must have, which additional attributes it can have, and which other object classes can be its parent object class.

 

schema master

A domain controller that holds the schema operations master role in Active Directory. The schema master performs write operations to the directory schema and replicates updates to all other domain controllers in the forest. At any time, the schema master role can be assigned to only one domain controller in the forest.

 

scope

A range of IP addresses that are available to be leased or assigned to DHCP clients by the DHCP service.

 

scope of influence

In a domain environment, a site, domain, or organizational unit; in a workgroup environment, the local disk.

 

scope of management (SOM)

In Group Policy, any Active Directory container to which you can link a Group Policy object (GPO). These containers can be sites, domains, or organizational units.

 

secondary cluster

A specific virtual IP address assigned to a Network Load Balancing cluster (the “primary cluster”). The secondary cluster`s virtual IP address is different than the primary cluster`s virtual IP address. Secondary clusters allow you to configure an independent set of port rules for each virtual IP address in your Network Load Balancing (primary) cluster. Also known as a virtual cluster.

 

secondary logon

The practice of logging on by using one security context and then, within the initial logon session, authenticating and using a second account. In Windows 2000, Windows XP Professional, and the Windows Server 2003 family, secondary logon is enabled by the RunAs.exe program and service.

 

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

A proposed open standard for establishing a secure communications channel to prevent the interception of critical information, such as credit card numbers. Primarily, it enables secure electronic financial transactions on the World Wide Web, although it is designed to work on other Internet services as well.

 

server

A computer that provides shared resources, such as files or printers, to network users.

 

server application

Application software running on a cluster node, regardless of whether it does service registration.

server cluster

A group of computers, known as nodes, working together as a single system to ensure that mission-critical applications and resources remain available to clients. A server cluster presents the appearance of a single server to a client.

server farm

In Active Directory Federation Services (ADFS), a collection of load-balanced federation servers, federation server proxies, or Web servers hosting the ADFS Web Agent.

Server for NIS

A feature of Windows that enables a Windowsbased Active Directory domain controller to administer Network Information Service (NIS) networks.

 

Server Message Block (SMB)

A file-sharing protocol designed to allow networked computers to transparently access files that reside on remote systems over a variety of networks. The SMB protocol defines a series of commands that pass information between computers. SMB uses four message types: session control, file, printer, and message.

 

Server Operators group

A group whose members can manage all domain controllers in a single domain. This group does not exist on workstations, stand-alone servers, or member servers. Administrative tasks that can be performed by members of this group include logging on locally, creating and deleting network shared resources, starting and stopping services, backing up and restoring files, formatting the hard disk of the computer, and shutting down the computer.

 

server zone

The AppleTalk zone on which a server appears. On a Phase 2 network, a server appears in the default zone of the server`s default network.

 

Server-Gated Cryptography (SGC)

An extension of Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) that enables organizations, such as financial institutions, that have export versions of Internet Information Services (IIS) to use strong encryption (for example, 128-bit encryption).

 

service

A program, routine, or process that performs a specific system function to support other programs, particularly at a low (close to the hardware) level. When services are provided over a network, they can be published in Active Directory, facilitating service-centric administration and usage. Some examples of services are the Security Accounts Manager service, File Replication service, and Routing and Remote Access service.

 

service (SRV) resource record

A DNS resource record used to identify computers that host specific services, specified in RFC 2782. SRV resource records are used to locate domain controllers for Active Directory.

 

 

Service Advertising Protocol (SAP)

A NetWare protocol used to identify the services and addresses of servers attached to the network. When a server starts, it uses the protocol to advertise its service. When the same server goes offline, it uses the protocol to announce that it is no longer available. NWLink IPX/SPX/NetBIOS Compatible Transport Protocol (NWLink) uses SAP to locate NetWare servers and services.

 

Service Pack

A software upgrade to an existing software distribution that contains updated files consisting of patches and hot fixes.

share

To make resources, such as folders and printers, available to others.

 

shared folder

A folder on another computer that has been made available for other people to use on the network.

 

shared folder permissions

Permissions that restrict a shared resource`s availability over the network to only certain users.

 

shared printer

A printer that receives input from more than one computer. For example, a printer attached to another computer on the network can be shared so that it is available for you to use. Also called a network printer.

 

shared resource

Any device, data, or program that is used by more than one program or one other device. For Windows, shared resource refers to any resource that is made available to network users, such as folders, files, printers, and named pipes. Shared resource can also refer to a resource on a server that is available to network users.

 

sparse file

A file that is handled in a way that requires much less disk space than would otherwise be needed. Sparse support allows an application to create very large files without committing disk space for those regions of the file that contain only zeros. For example, you can use sparse support to work with a 42-GB file in which you need to write data only to the first 64 KB (the rest of the file is zeroed).

 

special permissions

On NTFS volumes, a custom set of permissions. You can customize permissions on files and directories by selecting the individual components of the standard sets of permissions.

 

storage area network (SAN)

A set of interconnected devices (such as disks and tapes) and servers that are connected to a common communication and data transfer infrastructure such as Fibre Channel.

 

stand-alone server

A server that runs Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003, but does not participate in a domain. A stand-alone server has only its own database of users, and it processes logon requests by itself. A stand-alone server does not share account information with other computers and cannot provide access to domain accounts, but it can participate in a workgroup.

 

subdomain

A DNS domain located directly beneath another domain name (the parent domain) in the namespace tree. For example, example.microsoft.com would be a subdomain of the domain microsoft.com. Also called child domain.

 

system default profile

The user profile that is loaded when Windows is running and no user is logged on. When the Begin Logon dialog box is visible, the system default profile is loaded.

system disk

A disk that contains the MS-DOS system files necessary to start MS-DOS.

system files

Files used by Windows to load, configure, and run the operating system. Generally, system files must never be deleted or moved.

System menu

A menu that contains commands you can use to manipulate a window or close a program. You click the program icon at the left of the title bar to open the System menu.

system partition

The partition that contains the hardware-specific files needed to load Windows (for example, Ntldr, Osloader, Boot.ini, Ntdetect.com). The system partition can be, but does not have to be, the same as the boot partition.

System Policy

A Windows NT 4.0-style policy based on registry settings made using Poledit.exe, the System Policy Editor.

System State

In Backup, a collection of system-specific data maintained by the operating system that must be backed up as a unit. It is not a backup of the entire system. The System State data includes the registry, COM+ Class Registration database, system files, boot files, and files under Windows File Protection. For servers, the System State data also includes the Certificate Services database (if the server is a certificate server). If the server is a domain controller, the System State data also includes the Active Directory database and the SYSVOL directory. If the server is a node in a cluster, it includes the Cluster database information. The IIS Metabase is included if Internet Information Services (IIS) is installed.

system variables

Storage locations for data that are defined by the operating system and that are the same regardless of who is logged on at the computer. (Users who are also members of the Administrators group can add new variables or change the values.)

 

 

 

system volume

The volume that contains the hardware-specific files that are needed to load Windows on x86-based computers with a basic input/output system (BIOS). The system volume can be, but does not have to be, the same volume as the boot volume.

systemroot

The path and folder name where the Windows system files are located. Typically, this is C:\Windows, although you can designate a different drive or folder when you install Windows. You can use the value %systemroot% to replace the actual location of the folder that contains the Windows system files. To identify your systemroot folder, click Start, click Run, type %systemroot%, and then click OK.

Systems Management Server (SMS)

A Microsoft product that includes inventory collection, software deployment, and diagnostic tools. SMS automates the task of upgrading software, allows remote problem solving, provides asset management information, and monitors software usage, computers, and networks.

SYSVOL

A shared directory that stores the server copy of the domain`s public files, which are replicated among all domain controllers in the domain.

 

Terminal Services

The underlying technology that enables Remote Desktop, Remote Assistance, and Terminal Server.

 

user authentication module (UAM)

A software component that prompts clients for their user names and passwords.

 

virtual memory

Temporary storage used by a computer to run programs that need more memory than it has. For example, programs could have access to 4 gigabytes (GB) of virtual memory on a computer`s hard drive, even if the computer has only 32 megabytes (MB) of random access memory (RAM). The program data that does not currently fit in the computer`s memory is saved into paging files.

 

Virtual Memory Size

In Task Manager, the amount of virtual memory, or address space, committed to a process.

 

Web server

A computer that is maintained by a system administrator or Internet service provider (ISP) and that responds to requests from a user’s browser.

 

Web Services (WS-*)

The specifications for a Web Services Architecture that is based on industry standards such as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP); XML; Web Service Description Language (WSDL); and Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI). WS-* provides a foundation for delivering complete, interoperable business solutions for the extended enterprise, including the ability to manage federated identity and security.

 

 

Web Services Security (WS-Security)

A series of specifications that describe how to attach signature and encryption headers to Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages. In addition, WS-Security describes how to attach security tokens, including binary security tokens such as X.509 certificates and Kerberos tickets, to messages. In Active Directory Federation Services (ADFS), WS-Security is used when Kerberos signs security tokens.

workgroup

A simple grouping of computers, intended only to help users find such things as printers and shared folders within that group. Workgroups in Windows do not offer the centralized user accounts and authentication offered by domains.

 


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Windows Server 2003 Boot Process: Common Errors & Solutions

             Windows Server 2003 Boot Process: Common Errors & Solutions

 

The boot process starts when you turn on your computer and ends when you log on to Windows Server 2003. There can be various reasons for startup failures. Some can be easily corrected, while others might require you to reinstall Windows Server 2003.

This article will help you understand and troubleshoot most of the errors commonly occurring during the Windows Server 2003 boot process.

While diagnosing a server error, it is important to first determine at which stage the error occurred. A server error can occur when the server is booting, during its running time or even when it is shutting down.

                The Boot Process

The boot process will slightly differ depending on whether your server is using an x86-based processor or an Itanium-based processor. This article exclusively deals with x86-based boot Process

If you are running Windows Server 2003 on an x86-based platform, the boot process consists of six major stages:

1. The pre-boot sequence

2. The boot sequence

  1. Kernel load sequence
  2. Kernel initialization sequence

5. Logon sequence

6. Plug and Play detection

Many files are used during these stages of the boot process. The following sections describe the steps in each boot process stage, the files used, and the errors that might occur.

Stage 1: Pre-Boot Sequence

A normal boot process begins with the pre-boot sequence, in which your computer starts up and prepares to boot the operating system.

The computer will search for a boot device based on the boot order that was configured in the computer’s BIOS settings.

Steps in the Pre-Boot Sequence

The preboot sequence is not truly a part of windows booting process.

The pre-boot sequence consists of the following steps:

1. When the computer is powered on, it runs a power-on self-test (POST) routine. The POST detects the processor you are using, how much memory is present, the hardware is recognized and what BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) your computer is using.

2. The BIOS points to the boot device and the Master Boot Record (MBR) is loaded. It is also sometimes called the master boot sector or even just the boot sector.The MBR is located on the first sector of the hard disk. It contains the partition table and master boot code, which is executable code used to locate the active partition.

3. The MBR points to the Active partition. The active partition is used to specify the partition that should be used to boot the operating system. This is normally the C: drive. Once the MBR locates the active partition, the boot sector is loaded into memory and executed.

4. The Ntldr file is copied into memory and executed. The boot sector points to the Ntldr file, and this file executes. The Ntldr file is used to initialize and start the Windows Server 2003 boot process.

                    Possible Errors & Solutions

If you see errors during the pre-boot sequence, they are probably not related to Windows Server 2003, since the operating system has not yet been loaded. The following table lists some common causes for errors and solutions .

Symptom Cause Solution
Corrupt MBR There are many viruses that affect MBR and corrupt it. You can protect your system from this type of error by using a virus-scanning software. Most of the commonly used virus-scanning programs can correct an infected MBR.
Improperly configured hardware If the POST cannot recognize your hard drive, the pre-boot stage will fail. This error can occur even if the device was working properly and you haven’t changed your configuration. Recheck your device configuration, driver settings. Also check for any hardware malfunction and failure.
No partition is marked as active This can happen if you used the Fdisk utility and did not create a partition from all of the free space. If you created your partitions as a part of the Windows Server 2003 installation and have dynamic disks, marking an active partition is done for you during installation. If the partition is FAT16 or FAT32 and on a basic disk, you can boot the computer to DOS or Windows 9x with a boot disk. Then run Fdisk and mark a partition as active.
Corrupt or missing Ntldr file There are chances that, Ntldr file may be corrupted or deleted by virus attack. . You can restore this file through Automated System Recovery or a Windows Server 2003 boot disk.

Stage 2: Boot Sequence

When the pre-boot sequence is completed, the boot sequence begins. Ntldr switches the CPU to protected mode, which is used by Windows Server 2003 and starts the appropriate file systems.

The contents of the Boot.ini file are read and the information is used to build the initial boot menu selections. When Windows Server 2003 is selected, Ntdetect.com gathers the system’s basic hardware configuration data and passes the collected information back to Ntldr. The system also checks to see if more than one hardware profile is detected; if so, the hardware profile selection menu will be displayed as a part of the startup process.

                    Possible Errors & Solutions

The following table lists some common causes for errors during the boot stage.

Symptom Cause Solution
Missing or corrupt boot files If Ntldr, Boot.ini, Bootsect.dos, Ntdetect.com, or Ntoskrnl.exe is corrupt or missing (by a virus or malicious intent), the boot sequence will fail. You will see an error message that indicates which file is missing or corrupt. You can restore these files through Automated System Recovery.
Improperly configured Boot.ini file It can occur when you manually edit Boot.ini or if you have made any changes to your disk configuration. Recheck your configuration.
Unrecognizable or improperly configured hardware If the error that appears is due to Ntdetect.com, the issue is surely due to hardware problems. Best method to trouble shoot it is to remove all the hardware that is not required to boot the computer. Add each piece one by one and boot your computer. This will help you to identify the culprit.

                    Important Files

Along with the Ntldr file, which was described in the previous section, the following files are used during the boot sequence:

                    Boot.ini

This is used to build the operating system menu choices that are displayed during the boot process. It is also used to specify the location of the boot partition. This file is located in the root of the system partition. It has the file attributes of System and Hidden.

                    Bootsect.dos

An optional file that is loaded if you choose to load an operating system other than Windows Server 2003, Windows 2000, or Windows NT. It is used only in dual- boot or multi-boot computers. This file is located in the root of the system partition. It has the file attributes of System and Hidden.

                    Ntdetect.com

Used to detect any hardware that is installed and add that information about the hardware to the Registry. This file is located in the root of the system partition. It has the file attributes of System, Hidden, and Read-only.

                    Ntoskrnl.exe

Used to load the Windows Server 2003 operating system. This file is located in WindirSystem32 and has no file attributes.

Steps in the Boot Sequence

The boot sequence consists of the following steps:

1. Ntldr switches the processor from real mode to protected mode. Then it starts file system drivers which supports your computer’s file system.

2. Ntldr is responsible for reading Boot.ini file. It displays a √Ę‚ā¨Ňďboot menu which lets users to choose the operating system to load.If we choose an operating system other than Windows server 2003 say Windows 2000, or Windows NT, the Bootsect.dos file is used to load the alternate operating system, and the Windows Server 2003 boot process terminates.

3. Ntdetect.com file performs a hardware scan/detection and any hardware that is detected is added to registry in the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE key. The hardware that Ntdetect.com will recognize includes communication and parallel ports, the keyboard, the floppy disk drive, the mouse, the SCSI adapter, and the video adapter.

4. Control is passed to Ntoskrnl.exe to start the kernel load process.

Stage 3: Kernel Load Sequence

All of the information that is collected by Ntdetect.com is passed to Ntoskrnl.exe.

The kernel load sequence consists of the following steps:

1. The Ntoskrnl.exe file is loaded and initialized.

  • Initializes executive subsystems and boot system-start device drivers.

NOTE: By executive subsystems, I meant Process and Thread Manager, The Virtual Memory Manager, The Input/Output Manager, The Object Manager, Runtime Libraries which all runs in kernel mode.

  • Prepares the system for running native applications.

NOTE: If you are not familiar with native applications, then it needs explanation. Windows provide two type of API. Well known Windows API (All Windows programs must interact with the Windows API regardless of the language.) and Native API. Native API is used by some windows components like kernel level drivers and system process aka csrss.exe

  • runs Smss.exe.

The function of Ntoskrnl.exe:

2. The Hardware Abstraction Layer (or HAL) is loaded. The HAL is a kernel mode library (HAL.DLL) that provides a low-level interface with the hardware. Windows components and third-party device drivers communicate with the hardware through the HAL.

3. The control for the operating system is loaded. The control set is used to control system configuration information such as a list of device drivers that should be loaded.

4. Low-level device drivers, such as disk drivers are loaded.

                    Possible Errors & Solutions:

If you have problems loading the Windows Server 2003 kernel, you will most likely need to reinstall the operating system.

Stage 4: Kernel Initialization Sequence

In the kernel initialization sequence, the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINEHARDWARE Registry is created, device drivers are initialized, and high-order subsystems and services are loaded.

The kernel initialization sequence consists of the following steps:

1. Once the kernel has been successfully loaded, the Registry key HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE HARDWARE is created. This Registry key is used to specify the hardware configuration of hardware components when the computer is started.

2. The device drivers that were loaded during the kernel load phase are initialized.

3. Higher-order subsystems and services are loaded.

Note: Higher order subsystem include, POSIX Subsystem, OS/2 subsystem.

                    Possible Errors & Solutions:

If you have problems during the kernel initialization sequence, you may trying booting to the Last Known Good configuration.
Back to the Top

                Stage 5: Logon Sequence

Session Manager Subsystem or smss.exe plays a vital role in logon sequence. Its main function include.

1. It creates environment variables in the operating system.

2. It Starts the kernel and user modes of the Win32 subsystem (win32k.sys and csrss.exe). It then starts other subsystems that are listed in HKLMSystemCurrentControlSetControlSession ManagerSubSystems Registry key.

3. smss.exe starts winlogon.exe, the Windows logon manager.

winlogon.exe is a system service that enables logging on and off of users. It is also responsible for loading user profile.

It invokes GINA( Graphical Identification and Authentication) which displays login prompt. The GINA accepts the user login credentials and passes it back to Winlogon.

Winlogon then Starts Lsass.exe (the Local Security Authority) and passes login credentials to LSA. LSA determine which user account databases is to be used for authentication eg: Local SAM or Active Directory in case you are in a windows domain.

4. smss.exe finally starts the Services subsystem (Services.exe), also known as the Service Control Manager (SCM). It executes and performs a final scan of HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESYSTEMCurrentControlSetServices to see if there are any remaining services that need to be loaded.

                    Possible Errors & Solutions

1. If logon errors occurs, they are usually due to an incorrect username or password or to the unavailability of a DNS server or a domain controller to authenticate the request (if the computer is a part of a domain).

2. Errors can also occur if a service cannot be loaded. If a service fails to load, you will see a message in the System Log of Event Viewer.

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                Stage 6: Plug and Play Device Detection Phase

If Windows Server 2003 has detected any new devices during the startup process, they will automatically be assigned system resources.

If the device is Plug and Play and the needed driver can be obtained from the Driver.cab file, they are extracted.

Device detection occurs asynchronously with the initial user logon process when the system is started.

                    Possible Errors & Solutions

If the needed driver files are not found, the user will be prompted to provide them. If you have already installed the driver, then a simple reboot should detect the driver.

Most of the problem that occur at this stage can be corrected by a reboot.

 


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Virtual Local Area Networks

Virtual Local Area Networks


This paper describes virtual local area networks (VLAN’s) , their uses and how they work in accordance with the 802.1Q standard.



Table of Contents


1.0 Introduction

A Local Area Network (LAN) was originally defined as a network of computers located within the same area. Today, Local Area Networks are defined as a single broadcast domain. This means that if a user broadcasts information on his/her LAN, the broadcast will be received by every other user on the LAN. Broadcasts are prevented from leaving a LAN by using a router. The disadvantage of this method is routers usually take more time to process incoming data compared to a bridge or a switch. More importantly, the formation of broadcast domains depends on the physical connection of the devices in the network. Virtual Local Area Networks (VLAN’s) were developed as an alternative solution to using routers to contain broadcast traffic.

In Section 2, we define VLAN’s and examine the difference between a LAN and a VLAN. This is followed by a discussion on the advantages VLAN’s introduce to a network in Section 3. Finally, we explain how VLAN’s work based on the current draft standards in Section 4.

Back to Table of Contents


2.0 What are VLAN’s?

In a traditional LAN, workstations are connected to each other by means of a hub or a repeater. These devices propagate any incoming data throughout the network. However, if two people attempt to send information at the same time, a collision will occur and all the transmitted data will be lost. Once the collision has occurred, it will continue to be propagated throughout the network by hubs and repeaters. The original information will therefore need to be resent after waiting for the collision to be resolved, thereby incurring a significant wastage of time and resources. To prevent collisions from traveling through all the workstations in the network, a bridge or a switch can be used. These devices will not forward collisions, but will allow broadcasts (to every user in the network) and multicasts (to a pre-specified group of users) to pass through. A router may be used to prevent broadcasts and multicasts from traveling through the network.

The workstations, hubs, and repeaters together form a LAN segment. A LAN segment is also known as a collision domain since collisions remain within the segment. The area within which broadcasts and multicasts are confined is called a broadcast domain or LAN. Thus a LAN can consist of one or more LAN segments. Defining broadcast and collision domains in a LAN depends on how the workstations, hubs, switches, and routers are physically connected together. This means that everyone on a LAN must be located in the same area (see Figure1).

Figure 1: Physical view of a LAN.

VLAN’s allow a network manager to logically segment a LAN into different broadcast domains (see Figure2). Since this is a logical segmentation and not a physical one, workstations do not have to be physically located together. Users on different floors of the same building, or even in different buildings can now belong to the same LAN.

VLAN’s also allow broadcast domains to be defined without using routers. Bridging software is used instead to define which workstations are to be included in the broadcast domain. Routers would only have to be used to communicate between two VLAN’s [ Hein et al].

Back to Table of Contents


3.0 Why use VLAN’s?

VLAN’s offer a number of advantages over traditional LAN’s. They are:

1) Performance

In networks where traffic consists of a high percentage of broadcasts and multicasts, VLAN’s can reduce the need to send such traffic to unnecessary destinations. For example, in a broadcast domain consisting of 10 users, if the broadcast traffic is intended only for 5 of the users, then placing those 5 users on a separate VLAN can reduce traffic [ Passmore et al (3Com report)].

Compared to switches, routers require more processing of incoming traffic. As the volume of traffic passing through the routers increases, so does the latency in the routers, which results in reduced performance. The use of VLAN’s reduces the number of routers needed, since VLAN’s create broadcast domains using switches instead of routers.

2) Formation of Virtual Workgroups

Nowadays, it is common to find cross-functional product development teams with members from different departments such as marketing, sales, accounting, and research. These workgroups are usually formed for a short period of time. During this period, communication between members of the workgroup will be high. To contain broadcasts and multicasts within the workgroup, a VLAN can be set up for them. With VLAN’s it is easier to place members of a workgroup together. Without VLAN’s, the only way this would be possible is to physically move all the members of the workgroup closer together.

However, virtual workgroups do not come without problems. Consider the situation where one user of the workgroup is on the fourth floor of a building, and the other workgroup members are on the second floor. Resources such as a printer would be located on the second floor, which would be inconvenient for the lone fourth floor user.

Another problem with setting up virtual workgroups is the implementation of centralized server farms, which are essentially collections of servers and major resources for operating a network at a central location. The advantages here are numerous, since it is more efficient and cost-effective to provide better security, uninterrupted power supply, consolidated backup, and a proper operating environment in a single area than if the major resources were scattered in a building. Centralized server farms can cause problems when setting up virtual workgroups if servers cannot be placed on more than one VLAN. In such a case, the server would be placed on a single VLAN and all other VLAN’s trying to access the server would have to go through a router; this can reduce performance [Netreference Inc. article].

3) Simplified Administration

Seventy percent of network costs are a result of adds, moves, and changes of users in the network [ Buerger]. Every time a user is moved in a LAN, recabling, new station addressing, and reconfiguration of hubs and routers becomes necessary. Some of these tasks can be simplified with the use of VLAN’s. If a user is moved within a VLAN, reconfiguration of routers is unnecessary. In addition, depending on the type of VLAN, other administrative work can be reduced or eliminated [ Cisco white paper]. However the full power of VLAN’s will only really be felt when good management tools are created which can allow network managers to drag and drop users into different VLAN’s or to set up aliases.

Despite this saving, VLAN’s add a layer of administrative complexity, since it now becomes necessary to manage virtual workgroups [ Passmore et al (3Com report)].

4) Reduced Cost

VLAN’s can be used to create broadcast domains which eliminate the need for expensive routers.

5) Security

Periodically, sensitive data may be broadcast on a network. In such cases, placing only those users who can have access to that data on a VLAN can reduce the chances of an outsider gaining access to the data. VLAN’s can also be used to control broadcast domains, set up firewalls, restrict access, and inform the network manager of an intrusion [ Passmore et al (3Com report)].

Back to Table of Contents


4.0 How VLAN’s work

When a LAN bridge receives data from a workstation, it tags the data with a VLAN identifier indicating the VLAN from which the data came. This is called explicit tagging. It is also possible to determine to which VLAN the data received belongs using implicit tagging. In implicit tagging the data is not tagged, but the VLAN from which the data came is determined based on other information like the port on which the data arrived. Tagging can be based on the port from which it came, the source Media Access Control (MAC) field, the source network address, or some other field or combination of fields. VLAN’s are classified based on the method used. To be able to do the tagging of data using any of the methods, the bridge would have to keep an updated database containing a mapping between VLAN’s and whichever field is used for tagging. For example, if tagging is by port, the database should indicate which ports belong to which VLAN. This database is called a filtering database. Bridges would have to be able to maintain this database and also to make sure that all the bridges on the LAN have the same information in each of their databases. The bridge determines where the data is to go next based on normal LAN operations. Once the bridge determines where the data is to go, it now needs to determine whether the VLAN identifier should be added to the data and sent. If the data is to go to a device that knows about VLAN implementation (VLAN-aware), the VLAN identifier is added to the data. If it is to go to a device that has no knowledge of VLAN implementation (VLAN-unaware), the bridge sends the data without the VLAN identifier.

In order to understand how VLAN’s work, we need to look at the types of VLAN’s, the types of connections between devices on VLAN’s, the filtering database which is used to send traffic to the correct VLAN, and tagging, a process used to identify the VLAN originating the data.

VLAN Standard: IEEE 802.1Q Draft Standard

There has been a recent move towards building a set of standards for VLAN products. The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) is currently working on a draft standard 802.1Q for VLAN’s. Up to this point, products have been proprietary, implying that anyone wanting to install VLAN’s would have to purchase all products from the same vendor. Once the standards have been written and vendors create products based on these standards, users will no longer be confined to purchasing products from a single vendor. The major vendors have supported these standards and are planning on releasing products based on them. It is anticipated that these standards will be ratified later this year.

Back to Table of Contents

4.1 Types of VLAN’s

VLAN membership can be classified by port, MAC address, and protocol type.

1) Layer 1 VLAN: Membership by Port

Membership in a VLAN can be defined based on the ports that belong to the VLAN. For example, in a bridge with four ports, ports 1, 2, and 4 belong to VLAN 1 and port 3 belongs to VLAN 2 (see Figure3).

Port VLAN

1

1

2

1

3

2

4

1

Figure3: Assignment of ports to different VLAN’s.

The main disadvantage of this method is that it does not allow for user mobility. If a user moves to a different location away from the assigned bridge, the network manager must reconfigure the VLAN.

2) Layer 2 VLAN: Membership by MAC Address

Here, membership in a VLAN is based on the MAC address of the workstation. The switch tracks the MAC addresses which belong to each VLAN (see Figure4). Since MAC addresses form a part of the workstation’s network interface card, when a workstation is moved, no reconfiguration is needed to allow the workstation to remain in the same VLAN. This is unlike Layer 1 VLAN’s where membership tables must be reconfigured.

MAC Address VLAN

1212354145121

1

2389234873743

2

3045834758445

2

5483573475843

1

Figure4: Assignment of MAC addresses to different VLAN’s.

The main problem with this method is that VLAN membership must be assigned initially. In networks with thousands of users, this is no easy task. Also, in environments where notebook PC’s are used, the MAC address is associated with the docking station and not with the notebook PC. Consequently, when a notebook PC is moved to a different docking station, its VLAN membership must be reconfigured.

3) Layer 2 VLAN: Membership by Protocol Type

VLAN membership for Layer 2 VLAN’s can also be based on the protocol type field found in the Layer 2 header (see Figure5).

Protocol VLAN

IP

1

IPX

2

Figure5: Assignment of protocols to different VLAN’s.

4) Layer 3 VLAN: Membership by IP Subnet Address

Membership is based on the Layer 3 header. The network IP subnet address can be used to classify VLAN membership (see Figure 6).

IP Subnet VLAN

23.2.24

1

26.21.35

2

Figure6: Assignment of IP subnet addresses to different VLAN’s.

Although VLAN membership is based on Layer 3 information, this has nothing to do with network routing and should not be confused with router functions. In this method, IP addresses are used only as a mapping to determine membership in VLAN’s. No other processing of IP addresses is done.

In Layer 3 VLAN’s, users can move their workstations without reconfiguring their network addresses. The only problem is that it generally takes longer to forward packets using Layer 3 information than using MAC addresses.

5) Higher Layer VLAN’s

It is also possible to define VLAN membership based on applications or service, or any combination thereof. For example, file transfer protocol (FTP) applications can be executed on one VLAN and telnet applications on another VLAN.

The 802.1Q draft standard defines Layer 1 and Layer 2 VLAN’s only. Protocol type based VLAN’s and higher layer VLAN’s have been allowed for, but are not defined in this standard. As a result, these VLAN’s will remain proprietary.

Back to Table of Contents

4.2 Types of Connections

Devices on a VLAN can be connected in three ways based on whether the connected devices are VLAN-aware or VLAN-unaware. Recall that a VLAN-aware device is one which understands VLAN memberships (i.e. which users belong to a VLAN) and VLAN formats.

1) Trunk Link

All the devices connected to a trunk link, including workstations, must be VLAN-aware. All frames on a trunk link must have a special header attached. These special frames are called tagged frames (see Figure7).

Figure7: Trunk link between two VLAN-aware bridges.

2) Access Link

An access link connects a VLAN-unaware device to the port of a VLAN-aware bridge. All frames on access links must be implicitly tagged (untagged) (see Figure8). The VLAN-unaware device can be a LAN segment with VLAN-unaware workstations or it can be a number of LAN segments containing VLAN-unaware devices (legacy LAN).

Figure 8: Access link between a VLAN-aware bridge and a VLAN-unaware device.

3) Hybrid Link

This is a combination of the previous two links. This is a link where both VLAN-aware and VLAN-unaware devices are attached (see Figure9). A hybrid link can have both tagged and untagged frames, but allthe frames for a specific VLAN must be either tagged or untagged.

Figure9: Hybrid link containing both VLAN-aware and VLAN-unaware devices.

It must also be noted that the network can have a combination of all three types of links.

Back to Table of Contents

4.3 Frame Processing

A bridge on receiving data determines to which VLAN the data belongs either by implicit or explicit tagging. In explicit tagging a tag header is added to the data. The bridge also keeps track of VLAN members in a filtering database which it uses to determine where the data is to be sent. Following is an explanation of the contents of the filtering database and the format and purpose of the tag header [802.1Q].

1) Filtering Database

Membership information for a VLAN is stored in a filtering database. The filtering database consists of the following types of entries:

i) Static Entries

Static information is added, modified, and deleted by management only. Entries are not automatically removed after some time (ageing), but must be explicitly removed by management. There are two types of static entries:

a) Static Filtering Entries: which specify for every port whether frames to be sent to a specific MAC address or group address and on a specific VLAN should be forwarded or discarded, or should follow the dynamic entry, and

b) Static Registration Entries: which specify whether frames to be sent to a specific VLAN are to be tagged or untagged and which ports are registered for that VLAN.

ii) Dynamic Entries

Dynamic entries are learned by the bridge and cannot be created or updated by management. The learning process observes the port from which a frame, with a given source address and VLAN ID (VID), is received, and updates the filtering database. The entry is updated only if all the following three conditions are satisfied:

a) this port allows learning,

b) the source address is a workstation address and not a group address, and

c) there is space available in the database.

Entries are removed from the database by the ageing out process where, after a certain amount of time specified by management (10 sec — 1000000 sec), entries allow automatic reconfiguration of the filtering database if the topology of the network changes. There are three types of dynamic entries:

a) Dynamic Filtering Entries: which specify whether frames to be sent to a specific MAC address and on a certain VLAN should be forwarded or discarded.

b) Group Registration Entries: which indicate for each port whether frames to be sent to a group MAC address and on a certain VLAN should be filtered or discarded. These entries are added and deleted using Group Multicast Registration Protocol (GMRP). This allows multicasts to be sent on a single VLAN without affecting other VLAN’s.

c) Dynamic Registration Entries: which specify which ports are registered for a specific VLAN. Entries are added and deleted using GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP), where GARP is the Generic Attribute Registration Protocol.

GVRP is used not only to update dynamic registration entries, but also to communicate the information to other VLAN-aware bridges.

In order for VLAN’s to forward information to the correct destination, all the bridges in the VLAN should contain the same information in their respective filtering databases. GVRP allows both VLAN-aware workstations and bridges to issue and revoke VLAN memberships. VLAN-aware bridges register and propagate VLAN membership to all ports that are a part of the active topology of the VLAN. The active topology of a network is determined when the bridges are turned on or when a change in the state of the current topology is perceived.

The active topology is determined using a spanning tree algorithm which prevents the formation of loops in the network by disabling ports. Once an active topology for the network (which may contain several VLAN’s) is obtained, the bridges determine an active topology for each VLAN. This may result in a different topology for each VLAN or a common one for several VLAN’s. In either case, the VLAN topology will be a subset of the active topology of the network (see Figure 10).

Figure10: Active topology of network and VLAN A using spanning tree algorithm.

2) Tagging

When frames are sent across the network, there needs to be a way of indicating to which VLAN the frame belongs, so that the bridge will forward the frames only to those ports that belong to that VLAN, instead of to all output ports as would normally have been done. This information is added to the frame in the form of a tag header. In addition, the tag header:

i) allows user priority information to be specified,

ii) allows source routing control information to be specified, and

iii) indicates the format of MAC addresses.

Frames in which a tag header has been added are called tagged frames. Tagged frames convey the VLAN information across the network.

The tagged frames that are sent across hybrid and trunk links contain a tag header. There are two formats of the tag header:

i) Ethernet Frame Tag Header: The ethernet frame tag header (see Figure11) consists of a tag protocol identifier (TPID) and tag control information (TCI).

Figure11: Ethernet frame tag header.

ii) Token Ring and Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) tag header: The tag headers for both token ring and FDDI networks consist of a SNAP-encoded TPID and TCI.

Figure12: Token ring and FDDI tag header.

TPID is the tag protocol identifier which indicates that a tag header is following and TCI (see Figure 13) contains the user priority, canonical format indicator (CFI), and the VLAN ID.

Figure13: Tag control information (TCI).

User priority is a 3 bit field which allows priority information to be encoded in the frame. Eight levels of priority are allowed, where zero is the lowest priority and seven is the highest priority. How this field is used is described in the supplement 802.1p.

The CFI bit is used to indicate that all MAC addresses present in the MAC data field are in canonical format. This field is interpreted differently depending on whether it is an ethernet-encoded tag header or a SNAP-encoded tag header. In SNAP-encoded TPID the field indicates the presence or absence of the canonical format of addresses. In ethernet-encoded TPID, it indicates the presence of the Source-Routing Information (RIF) field after the length field. The RIF field indicates routing on ethernet frames.

The VID field is used to uniquely identify the VLAN to which the frame belongs. There can be a maximum of (2 12 – 1) VLAN’s. Zero is used to indicate no VLAN ID, but that user priority information is present. This allows priority to be encoded in non-priority LAN’s.

Back to Table of Contents


5.0 Summary

As we have seen there are significant advances in the field of networks in the form of VLAN’s which allow the formation of virtual workgroups, better security, improved performance, simplified administration, and reduced costs. VLAN’s are formed by the logical segmentation of a network and can be classified into Layer1, 2, 3 and higher layers. Only Layer 1 and 2 are specified in the draft standard 802.1Q. Tagging and the filtering database allow a bridge to determine the source and destination VLAN for received data. VLAN’s if implemented effectively, show considerable promise in future networking solutions.

Back to Table of Contents


6.0 References

1) David Passmore, John Freeman, “The Virtual LAN Technology Report,” March 7, 1997, http://www.3com.com/nsc/200374.html
A very good overview of VLAN’s, their strengths, weaknesses, and implementation problems.

2) IEEE, “Draft Standard for Virtual Bridge Local Area Networks,” P802.1Q/D1, May 16, 1997,
This is the draft standard for VLAN’s which covers implementation issues of Layer 1 and 2 VLAN’s.

3) Mathias Hein, David Griffiths, Orna Berry, “Switching Technology in the Local Network: From LAN to Switched LAN to Virtual LAN,” February 1997,
Textbook explanation of what VLAN’s are and their types.

7) Susan Biagi, “Virtual LANs,” Network VAR v4 n1 p. 10-12, January 1996,
An Overview of VLAN’s, advantages, and disadvantages.

8) David J. Buerger, “Virtual LAN cost savings will stay virtual until networking’s next era,” Network World, March 1995,
A short summary on VLAN’s.

9) IEEE, “Traffic Class Expediting and Dynamic Multicast Filtering,” 802.1p/D6, April 1997,
This is the standard for implementing priority and dynamic multicasts. Implementation of priority in VLAN’s is based on this standard.

Back to Table of Contents


7.0 Abbreviations

  • CFI – Canonical Format Indicator
  • FDDI – Fiber Distributed Data Interface
  • FTP – File Transfer Protocol
  • GARP – Generic Attribute Registration Protocol
  • GMRP – Group Multicast Registration Protocol
  • GVRP – GARP VLAN Registration Protocol
  • IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
  • LAN – Local Area Network
  • MAC – Media Access Control
  • RIF – Source-Routing Information
  • TCI – Tag Control Information
  • TPID – Tag Protocol Identifier
  • VID – VLAN ID
  • VLAN – Virtual Local Area Network

 


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Individual Contributor Goals

Individual Contributor Goals:

 

1. Ensure that you do not contribute to change failures by thoroughly reviewing your change design, get it approved by SME’s NOMINATED BY YOUR MANAGER and follow the change process for executing the change. Strive to contribute for Zero failed change

 

2. Ensure no unauthorized change. Strive for Zero unauthorized change

 

3. Ensure that you do the highest quality ticket update while the incident is being handled

 

4. Volunteer to review the work output of others and contribute to preventing defects in the work output of others. Maintain records of such contributions and share it with your manager.

 

5. Ensure that you respond in a timely manner to incoming requests. Prevent any escalations in this space

 

6. Improve the quality and productivity of ticket handling. Strive to follow repeatable processes and best in class procedures for handling tickets of a given category. Build automation and scripts to enable you in this goal. It will be great, if you can contribute to the creation of such engineering procedures and processes. Ensure your approach is reviewed and approved by your SME and Manager.

 

7. Improve your ability to solve and diagnose problems in the client environment. Display your knowledge in this area by documenting technical white papers. Demonstrate to your manager your success in applying the knowledge that you have documented in your white papers. You would have excelled if others start following your recommendations. This will happen if this knowledge is shared by you in Global Clearing House.

 

8. Show improvement in leading bridge calls. Create your mechanism for seeking feedback on your effectiveness to lead bridge calls. Maintain records of bridge calls that you have led and the feedback you have obtained on it from various sources including CSM/DPE and sending Geo partners

 

9. Focus on your skill development. Maintain your individual development plan and document your skill development goals for the year in the same and get it reviewed by your manager. Ensure you progress on the goals and get it certified by your manager

 

10. Strive for highest quality in change record update

 

11. Ensure that the server and storage boxes that you maintain have zero security violations. Zero patching violations to be observed in all the patches that you were involved in.

No CIRATS ticket closed without ample evidence that the job has been completed to satisfaction

 

12. Consistently demonstrate your contribution to continuously improve the status quo in the customer environment by driving defect prevention initiatives. Use your analytical abilities to spot loopholes in how technology is implemented in the client environment. Contribute to defect prevention initiatives to reduce incoming tickets and to increase the stability of business critical servers/storage

 

13. If your role is QA role, ensure that the accounts that you are responsible for have a continuous trend in incoming ticket reduction. Contribute to backup failure reduction.

 

14. Maintain a Satisfactory Controls posture (IT Diary updated monthly, Workplace and Workstation security etc.)

  • IT Diary Should be updated every month before 18th
  • WST status to be checked and Updated before 18th of every month
  • ILC to be claimed before Thursday COB every week

 

15. Deeper Relationships:

  • Deepen relationships within delivery organization and customers as evidenced by breadth of supported account and service lines.
  • Broaden relationships within delivery organization and customers as evidenced by breadth of supported account and service lines.

16. Ensure timely invoking escalation process is used / followed to appropriate higher ups in the delivery organization to reduce the impact to the customer and to provide quality service delivery to customer.

17. Ensure OAM and CTM is read and understood of the supported account/s and understand the scope of work expected from service delivery perspective from customer.

18. Ensure every task is executed / performed as per the documented desk side procedures of the account from QMX and adhere to the processes of the specific account/s supported.

19. Improve your average tickets handled/week to a minimum of 40 Sev 3 / Sev 4 tickets per week by either working in the same account or working on multiple accounts.

 


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Windows Run Commands

To Access

Run Command

Accessibility Controls  

access.cpl  

Add Hardware Wizard

hdwwiz.cpl

Add/Remove Programs

appwiz.cpl

Administrative Tools

control admintools

Automatic Updates

wuaucpl.cpl

Bluetooth Transfer Wizard

fsquirt

Calculator

calc

Certificate Manager

certmgr.msc

Character Map

charmap

Check Disk Utility

chkdsk

Clipboard Viewer

clipbrd

Command Prompt

cmd

Component Services

dcomcnfg

Computer Management

compmgmt.msc

Date and Time Properties

timedate.cpl

DDE Shares

ddeshare

Device Manager

devmgmt.msc

Direct X Control Panel (If Installed)*

directx.cpl

Direct X Troubleshooter

dxdiag

Disk Cleanup Utility

cleanmgr

Disk Defragment

dfrg.msc

Disk Management

diskmgmt.msc

Disk Partition Manager

diskpart

Display Properties

control desktop

Display Properties

desk.cpl

Display Properties (w/Appearance Tab Preselected)

control color

Dr. Watson System Troubleshooting Utility

drwtsn32

Driver Verifier Utility

verifier

Event Viewer

eventvwr.msc

File Signature Verification Tool

sigverif

Findfast

findfast.cpl

Folders Properties

control folders

Fonts

control fonts

Fonts Folder

fonts

Free Cell Card Game

freecell

Game Controllers

joy.cpl

Group Policy Editor (XP Prof)

gpedit.msc

Hearts Card Game

mshearts

Iexpress Wizard

iexpress

Indexing Service

ciadv.msc

Internet Properties

inetcpl.cpl

IP Configuration (Display Connection Configuration)

ipconfig /all

IP Configuration (Display DNS Cache Contents)

ipconfig /displaydns

IP Configuration (Delete DNS Cache Contents)

ipconfig /flushdns

IP Configuration (Release All Connections)

ipconfig /release

IP Configuration (Renew All Connections)

ipconfig /renew

IP Configuration (Refreshes DHCP & Re-Registers DNS)

ipconfig /registerdns

IP Configuration (Display DHCP Class ID)

ipconfig /showclassid

IP Configuration (Modifies DHCP Class ID)

ipconfig /setclassid

Java Control Panel (If Installed)

jpicpl32.cpl

Java Control Panel (If Installed)

javaws

Keyboard Properties

control keyboard

Local Security Settings

secpol.msc

Local Users and Groups

lusrmgr.msc

Logs You Out Of Windows

logoff

Microsoft Chat

winchat

Minesweeper Game

winmine

Mouse Properties

control mouse

Mouse Properties

main.cpl

Network Connections

control netconnections

Network Connections

ncpa.cpl

Network Setup Wizard

netsetup.cpl

Notepad

notepad

Nview Desktop Manager(If Installed)

nvtuicpl.cpl

Object Packager

packager

ODBC Data Source Administrator

odbccp32.cpl

On Screen Keyboard

osk

Opens AC3 Filter (If Installed)

ac3filter.cpl

Password Properties

password.cpl

Performance Monitor

perfmon.msc

Performance Monitor

perfmon

Phone and Modem Options

telephon.cpl

Power Configuration

powercfg.cpl

Printers and Faxes

control printers

Printers Folder

printers

Private Character Editor

eudcedit

Quicktime (If Installed)

QuickTime.cpl

Regional Settings

intl.cpl

Registry Editor

regedit

Registry Editor

regedit32

Remote Desktop

mstsc

Removable Storage

ntmsmgr.msc

Removable Storage Operator Requests

ntmsoprq.msc

Resultant Set of Policy (XP Prof)

rsop.msc

Scanners and Cameras

sticpl.cpl

Scheduled Tasks

control schedtasks

Security Center

wscui.cpl

Services

services.msc

Shared Folders

fsmgmt.msc

Shuts Down Windows

shutdown

Sounds and Audio

mmsys.cpl

Spider Solitare Card Game

spider

SQL Client Configuration

cliconfg

System Configuration Editor

sysedit

System Configuration Utility

msconfig

System File Checker Utility (Scan Immediately)

sfc /scannow

System File Checker Utility (Scan Once At Next Boot)

sfc /scanonce

System File Checker Utility (Scan On Every Boot)

sfc /scanboot

System File Checker Utility (Return to Default Setting)

sfc /revert

System File Checker Utility (Purge File Cache)

sfc /purgecache

System File Checker Utility (Set Cache Size to size x)

sfc /cachesize=x

System Properties

sysdm.cpl

Task Manager

taskmgr

Telnet Client

telnet

User Account Management

nusrmgr.cpl

Utility Manager

utilman

Windows Firewall

firewall.cpl

Windows Magnifier

magnify

Windows Management Infrastructure

wmimgmt.msc

Windows System Security Tool

syskey

Windows Update Launches

wupdmgr

Windows XP Tour Wizard

tourstart

Wordpad

write

 


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PORTS TO REMEMBER

15 netstat
11 systat
20 ftp-data
21 ftp
22 ssh, pcAnywhere
23 Telnet
25 SMTP
42 nameserv, WINS
53 DNS
67 bootps
68 bootpd/dhcp
69 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (tftp)
80 www-http
88 Kerberos, WWW
101 HOSTNAME
109 POP2
110 POP3
137 netbios-ns
138 netbios-dgm (UDP)
139 NetBIOS
143 IMAP
161 SNMP
220 IMAP3
443 ssl , HTTPS
445 SMB
514 syslog, rsh
515 lp, lpr, line printer
520 RIP (Routing Information Protocol)
631 IPP (Internet Printing Protocol)
1352 Lotus Notes
1227 DNS2Go
1494 Citrix ICA Protocol
1521 Oracle SQL
1604 Citrix ICA, MS Terminal Server
2049 NFS
3389 RDP Protocol (Terminal Server)
5500 securid
5631 PCAnywhere data
5632 PCAnywhere
8080 HTTP

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